Question

**Chapter 32: The Atom and the Quantum**

1. In relation to the atom as a whole (in terms of mass, size, charge), how is the nucleus of an atom characterized?

2. What was Rutherford's famous gold foil experiment? (Provide a sketch.)

3. What conclusions were drawn from the results of this experiment? And how were these conclusions drawn?

4. In general, what kinds of clues to atomic structure were provided by atomic spectra at that time?

5. What is the Ritz combination principle?

6. What are the assumptions of the Bohr model?

7. How does the Bohr model explain the Ritz combination principle?

8. How are the spectral lines of an atom predicted from the energy levels of the atom? What is the underlying explanation of the existence of specific discrete spectral lines? (Provide a sketch.)

9. What determines the diameter of electron orbits in the Bohr model of the atom?

10. What fundamental force dictates the size of an atom?

11. What "waves" in Schrodinger's wave equation?

12. How is the wave function of quantum mechanics denoted, and what kind of quantity is it?

13. What is the probability function of an electron in an atom in a particular state, and what is this function in terms of the wave function of the electron in that state?

14. What does “tunneling” mean with regard to quantum mechanics?

15. How is the correspondence principle illustrated with respect to quantum mechanics and Newtonian physics?

Answer #1

1. The nucleus is the densest part of the atom, in terms of mass. The entire positive charge is contained within the nucleus. The nucleus of the atom is very very small. For a rough idea, if the atom were the size of a cricket stadium the nucleus would be the size of a peanut, this causes the high density.

2.

3. It was observed that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil without being reflected which suggested that the mass of the atom is concentrated in a very small part of it i.e. the nucleus.

why are the electrons of the helium atom not all in the 1s
state.
Which of the following
choices best explains this observation?
Coulomb's law
the Pauli exclusion principle
the Einstein quantum entanglement principle
Rutherford's explanation of atomic structure
the Heisenberg uncertainty principle
2.)There is a singly-ionized helium atom, which has 2 protons
with its remaining electron in the ground state.
Using the Bohr model calculation, determine the maximum
wavelength in nanometers for a photon that could remove the
remaining...

Learning Outcomes (Unit 2)
Perform quantitative calculations based on the relationship
between wavelength, energy, and the speed of light.
Identify and rank the different types of radiation which
comprise the electromagnetic spectrum.
Explain why classical mechanics doesn't describe electromagnetic
radiation.
Describe the photoelectric effect and relate the energy and/or
intensity of the photons to the work function and kinetic energy of
the ejected electrons.
Explain the origin of atomic and emission spectra and relate
these spectra to discrete energy levels....

1.) Which transition in a hydrogen atom would
emit the photon of greatest frequency?
n = 35 to n = 2
n= 6 to n = 2
n = 12 to n = 6
n = 1 to n = 4
n = 2 to n = 9
n = 3 to n = 1
***NOT n=35 to n=2***
2.) Which transition in a hydrogen atom would
absorb the photon of greatest frequency?
n = 3 to n = 1...

1.) Which transition in a hydrogen atom would
emit the photon of greatest frequency?
n = 35 to n = 2
n= 6 to n =
2
n = 12 to n =
6
n = 1 to n = 4
n = 2 to n = 9
n = 3 to n = 1
***NOT n=35 to n=2***
2.) Which transition in a hydrogen atom would
absorb the photon of greatest frequency?
n = 3 to n = 1...

1) Describe an example of each of the following that may be
found of your kitchen: Explain how your choice falls into this
category, and if there is a chemical name or symbol for it, provide
that as well. Provide a photo of your example with your ID card in
it. a) a compound b) a heterogeneous mixture c) an element (symbol)
Moving to the Caves… Lechuguilla Caves specifically. Check out this
picture of crystals of gypsum left behind in...

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