Learning Outcomes (Unit 2)
Perform quantitative calculations based on the relationship between wavelength, energy, and the speed of light.
Identify and rank the different types of radiation which comprise the electromagnetic spectrum.
Explain why classical mechanics doesn't describe electromagnetic radiation.
Describe the photoelectric effect and relate the energy and/or intensity of the photons to the work function and kinetic energy of the ejected electrons.
Explain the origin of atomic and emission spectra and relate these spectra to discrete energy levels.
Apply the Rydberg formula to predict the energy of transitions between fixed energy levels in the hydrogen atom.
Explain that quantum mechanics is a mathematical model, the solutions of which yield wave functions and energies.
List the possible combinations of quantum numbers that are allowed.
State the atomic orbital names based on quantum numbers.
Explain that a wave function can be used to calculate a radial distribution function that describes the probability of an electron as a function of distance away from the nucleus
Distinguish between one-electron systems and multi-electron systems.
Apply the Aufbau principle to determine the conﬁguration for any atom or ion.
Relate the electronic conﬁguration of an element to its position on the periodic table.
Recognize that there are exceptions to the Aufbau principle and predict where on the periodic table these are likely to occur.
Apply Hund's Rule and the Pauli Exclusion Principle to determine electron conﬁguration using an orbital diagram (electrons in individual orbitals with spins).
Fill an electron atomic orbital diagram and determine whether the element is paramagnetic or diamagnetic.
Apply the shell model of multi-electron atoms to describe the concept of core vs. valence electrons.
Describe the organization of the periodic table and the characteristics of elements in different regions of the table.
Describe the concept of electronic shielding and effective nuclear charge (Zeff) and their relationship to trends in ionization energy, atomic radii, and ionic radii.
Identify metals and non-metals, and predict the types of compounds (ionic/covalent) that will form from different elements.
Distinguish between molecules, ions, and atoms.
Predict the anion or cation that a main-group element is likely to form.
Relate Coulomb’s law to ionic radii, ionic charge, and lattice energy.
Describe the distance dependence of the potential energy of a covalent bond.
Predict and explain relative bond strength and lengths in a compound.
Name and write formulas for covalent compounds.
Interpret line drawings of chemical compounds with implicit hydrogens, carbons, and lone pairs.
Rank the polarity of covalent bonds based on relative electronegativity.
Define dipole moment and identify polar bonds.
Draw the best Lewis structure (including any resonance structures) for a molecule or polyatomic ion.
Apply formal charges to structures and use them to predict the most likely structure.
Recognize and apply exceptions to the octet rule.
1. The relationship between wavelength, frequency and velocity is c= wf, where c is the speed of light in vaccum - 3.0*10^8 m/s, w is wavelength and f is the frequency.
2. The different types of radiation from highest to lowest frequency are:
Gamma rays, x rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infra red rays, microwaves and radio waves.
3. According to classical physics, the energy produced by all frequencies of vibration should be same. However, it could not explain black body radiation where the frequency can go up to infinity depending on the temperature of a body and also the energy increases with increase in frequency.
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