Question

Briefly describe what is Normally Consolidated (NC) Clay and Over-Consolidated (OC) clay

Answer #1

Normally consolidated clay is that type of clay in which the present stress which it is experiencing greater than the stress the soil has been experiencing means present stress is the max stress it has been acted upon.

Over consolidated clay is that type of clay which has experienced a stress greater than the present stress it is acted upon that means the soil has been acted upon by stress greater than the present stess in the past..

Over consolidation ratio (OCR) is ratio of pre consolidated stress / present stress.

For NC clay OCR < 1

For OC clay OCR > 1

A normally consolidated clay is consolidated under a stress of
100 kPa, then sheared undrained in a triaxial compression. The
principal stress difference (deviatoric stress) at failure is 250
kPa and the induced pore pressure is 60 kPa. Calculate the minor
principal stress at failure in term of effective stress
(s3')f? (Unit: kPa).

Assume a rigid strip footing is constructed on a normally
consolidated clay layer under a uniformly distributed vertical
load. The depth of footing is zero and the water table is a few
metres below the surface ground. The average shear strength
parameters of the clay layer are:
• At the beginning of loading: fu = 0, cu
= 50 kPa
• Long time after loading:, f’ = 25° and c’ = 0 kPa. Will the
bearing capacity of this footing...

Assume a rigid strip footing is constructed on a normally
consolidated clay layer under a uniformly distributed vertical
load. The depth of footing is zero and the water table is a few
metres below the surface ground. The average shear strength
parameters of the clay layer are:
At the beginning of loading: fu = 0, cu =
50 kPa
Long time after loading:, f’ = 25° and c’ = 0 kPa
Will the bearing capacity of this footing change, if...

A consolidated-undrained (CU) test on normally consolidated clay
yielded the following results:
Principle pressure:
σ1
= 6150 psf
Deviator stress at
failure: (Δσd)f
= 3600 psf
Pore pressure at
failure: (Δud)f
= 1150 psf
Based on the given information and your soil mechanics
knowledge, determine the drained and undrained friction
angles (i.e., φʹ and φ)

A sample of normally consolidated clay was subjected to a CU
triaxial compression test that was carried out until the specimen
failed at a deviator stress of 50 kN/m2. The pore water pressure at
failure was recorded to be 18 kN/m2, and a confining pressure of 48
kN/m2 was used in the test. The cohesion of the clay was 20 kN/m2
at the failure. draw both the effective stress strength envelope
and total stress strength envelope. identify the effective internal...

A normally consolidated clay deposit has an undrained shear
strength equal to 139.8 kN/m2. From drained test values
of c and phi are found to be 21.8 kPa and 31.7 degrees,
respectively. Use formulation
If failure occurs in either the undrained state or drained
state, what is the major effective principal stress at failure in
kPa?
If failure occurs in the undrained state, what is the minor
effective principal stress at failure in kPa?

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Briefly define and describe what IASB and IFRS are.

Briefly describe what an electroencephalogram (EEG) recording
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