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# How can I identify IV, and DV and Cvariates in a research paper, then assess the...

How can I identify IV, and DV and Cvariates in a research paper, then assess the levels and levels of meaaurement?

Dependant Variable DV is defined as one about which the experimenter makes a prediction. IV is independant variable which is manipulated, measured and selected by the experimenter for the purpose of producing observable changes in the behavioural measure.Cvariate variable is A variable that could influence the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable in experimental research; it is therefore measured and its results are controlled for to determine the “pure” causal effect.

Level of measurement is a classification that describes the nature of information within the values assigned to variables.There are four levels of measurement; Ordinal, nominal, ratio and interval.

Nominal measurement is the lowest level of measurement. In nominal scale numbers are used to names,identify or classify persons groups etc.In this scale members of two groups are never equivalent but members of the same group are equivalent.

Ordinal scale allows for rank order (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) by which data can be sorted, but still does not allow for relative degree of difference between them.But the intervals are not equal or an absolute zero.

The interval type allows for the degree of difference between items, but not the ratio between them.They have equal distances but there is no true zero point.

Ratio scale takes its name from the fact that measurement is the estimation of the ratio between a magnitude of a continuous quantity and a unit magnitude of the same kind. A ratio scale possesses a meaningful (unique and non-arbitrary) zero value. Most measurement in the physical sciences and engineering is done on ratio scales.