Question

# The Helmholtz free energy of a system is given by A = U - TS. Give...

The Helmholtz free energy of a system is given by A = U - TS. Give a graphical illustration of the criterion for equilibrium of a closed solid-vapour system at constant volume and temperature by using this equation

• Helmholtz free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and volume (isothermal, isochoric). The negative of the change in the Helmholtz energy during a process is equal to the maximum amount of work that the system can perform in a thermodynamic process in which volume is held constant. If the volume were not held constant, part of this work would be performed as boundary work. This makes the Helmholtz energy useful for systems held at constant volume. Furthermore, at constant temperature, the Helmholtz free energy is minimized at equilibrium.

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