Summarize the construction of the drainage pipeline system in plumbing and the methods of pipe design....

Summarize the construction of the drainage pipeline system in plumbing and the methods of pipe design. Exemplify plumbing apparatus and fixtures used in home plumbing system.

Report requirements: (2X3=6 marks)

Discuss the building’s pipe drainage system’s design and device requirements. This covers several important issues such as making of pipe sewage system and fixtures that are used in building zones of home plumbing system.

Homework Answers

Answer #1

Setting up a pefect and efficient drainage system is a very important thing in constructing a building.Plumbing and drainage systemis a system which includes a collection of pipe connection to supply the required water to the building and takig away the waste water from the building.The system which is used for supplying required water to the building is known as plumbing system and the system which is provided to take away the waste water from the building is known as drainage system.Construction of a building wiil be completed only after providing asufficient plumbing and drainage system.So it is very important thing as far as civil engineering is concerned.Drainage is very necessary to avoid flooding and damages.Before getting into explanationof drainage system lets have alook at two terms sewage and sullage.Sewage means the wastewater from the water closet having human excreta in it.Sullage is the waste water from bathrooms,washbasins,kitchen sinks etc,

Components of a drainage pipeline system in plumbing

1. Pipes

  • Soil pipe - Pipes installed for carrying human sewage from water closets.its size is generally 100mm diameter.
  • Waste pipe- Pipes carrying sullage from bathrooms,washbasins,kitchen sinks etc.Size of horizontal waste pipe ranges from 30mm to 50mm whereas vertical waste pipe is 75mm diameter.
  • Vent pipe- Pipes which supplies air to and from the drainage system.This circulation of air in the drainage systemprotect the water seal of traps against siphonage and backflow.Vent pipe is of diameter 50mm.
  • Anti-siphonage pipe-Pipe installed to preserve the water seal in the trap through proper ventilation.
  • Rain water pipe- carries rain water only.its size is about 75mm diameter.


Traps are U shaped pipe which has water seal in it.This water seal is provided to prevent the back flow of sewer gas from the drain pipe back to the occupied space of the building.All the plumbing fixtures such as toilets ,sinks and bath tubs must have trap euther external or internal.There are mainly three types of traps

  • P-Trap - it is in the shape alphabet 'P'.it exit into the wall behinfd the sink.
  • Q-Trap - it is used in toilet below the water closet
  • S-Trap -It is in the shape of alphabet'S'.it is mainly used with the siphonage pipe.
  • Floor trap- it is used for conveying the sullge from the floors of kitchen and bath rooms to the sullge pipe.It is mainly made up of stainless steel and its top portion made up with small holes so that large matter will not enter in to the pipe thereby blockage can be avoided.
  • Gully Trap- it is provided at the junction of a roof drain or another drain coming from kitchen or bath room.
  • Intercepting trap - This trap is provided at the point at which the house sewer joins with the muncipal sewer.It prevents the entry of foul gases from the muncipal sewer to the house sewer.

3. Sanitary Fittings

  • Wash basin- It is used mainly for handwashing
  • Sinks- Provided in the kitchen for cleaning utensils
  • Bath tub - Provided in bath room for taking bath.
  • Water closet-Remove human excreta directly to the soil pipe through traps.

Types of Drainage systems

  • Two pipe system

It is the most commonly used and mlost efficient drainage system mainly used for residential buildings. As its name indicates there are two vertical pipes a soil pipe and a waste pipe.Soil pipe is for carrying waste water containing human excreta from the water closets and waste pipe is for carrying other waste water from bath rooms ,kitchen and wash basins.This system includes seperate vent pipe and antisiphonage pipe for ventilating the soil pipe and waste pipe seperately.

  • One pipe system

As the name indicates this drainage system consist of only one pipe for carrying both waste containing human excreta from water closets and other waste water from bath rooms ,kitchen and wash basins.The main pipe is ventilated at top along with seperate vent pipe.

  • Single stack system

This system consist of only asingle pipe for carrying soil,,waste and ventilation purpose.There is no saeperate pipe for ventilation.The single pipe carries the human excreta and the sullge.The same pipe is extended to a height of 2m above roof level with a cowl on the top which will act as a vent pipe.

  • Partially ventilated single stack system

It is slightly modified version of single stack system in which the traps of the water closets are ventilated by a seperate vent pipe called releif pipe.This system consist of two pipes one pipe for drainage pupose and one pipe for ventilation

Types of Plumbing system

  • Potable water system

In this system water from the main community pipe is conveys water into a structure.There is a valve which controls this water flow from the main pipe to the structure.Then the water is distributed to the entire structure through a network of pipe connections.

  • Sanitary drainage system

This systrem consists of pipes for carrying the waste water from the buildings to the main sewer pipe.These system is provided with sufficient ventilation pipes also.

  • Storm water drainage system

Storm water drainage system is installed for carrying the rainwater away from the buildings.In traditional buildings there is no sperate drainage system for rainwater. it is collected along with waste water through the sewage pipe.But now there is a seperate systyem for carrying the rain water.That is storm water sewage system.Gutters ,drains and pipes are the components of this system.

Home plumbing fixtures

Main home plumbing fixtures are water closets,Bath tubs,faucets,showers,wash basins etc.Pipes and valces are also a part of home plumbing system.

  • Taps

Taps are the most important fixture in plumbing system which allows the flow of water for all the puposes.

  • Bath tubs

it is large container most commonly oval ,rectangular or cicular in shape used for bathing puposes .A person can bath in a tub by immersing body fully in water .Bath tubs can be made by using fibreglass.acrylic,cast iron,steel or water proof woods also.Most commonly acrylic and fibreglass is used because cast iron and steel bath tubs are quite expensive.Bath tubs are attached with taps,hand showers.overflows etc.

  • Sinks/Wash basin

Sinks and wash basins are generally used for washing puposes.Wash basin is placed either in the bath room or in a common area somewhere near to the dining area for hand washing.Sinks are mainly used in kitchen or work area for washing utensils.

  • Water closets

Water closets are used for the removal of human excreta to the soil pipe.Water closets are generally have flush tank and a faucet attached to it.

  • Shower

Showers are used for bathing purposes

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