Question

Write a summary of your understanding of the study (below abstract ). In your ownsummary (or your first comment), you need to refer to the article and explain what the researchers did. You do not have to compute anything, but explain the idea central to the study.

Abstract: The Chi-square statistic is a non-parametric (distribution-free) tool designed to analyze group differences when the dependent variable is measured at a nominal level. Like all non-parametric statistics, the Chi-square is robust with respect to the distribution of the data. Specifically, it does not require equality of variances among the study groups or homoscedasticity in the data. It permits evaluation of both dichotomous independent variables, and of multiple group studies. Unlike many other non-parametric and some parametric statistics, the calculations needed to compute the Chi-square provide considerable information about how each of the groups performed in the study. This richness of detail allows the researcher to understand the results and thus to derive more detailed information from this statistic than from many others. The Chi-square is a significant statistic and should be followed with a strength statistic. The Cramer’s V is the most common strength test used to test the data when a significant Chi-square result has been obtained. Advantages of the Chi-square include its robustness with respect to the distribution of the data, its ease of computation, the detailed information that can be derived from the test, its use in studies for which parametric assumptions cannot be met, and its flexibility in handling data from both two group and multiple group studies. Limitations include its sample size requirements, the difficulty of interpretation when there are large numbers of categories (20 or more) in the independent or dependent variables, and tendency of the Cramer’s V to produce relative low correlation measures, even for highly signifi cant results. Key words: Chi-square; non-parametric; assumptions; categorical data; statistical analysis.

Summary and conclusions The Chi-square is a valuable analysis tool that provides considerable information about the nature of research data. It is a powerful statistic that enables researchers to test hypotheses about variables measured at the nominal level. As with all inferential statistics, the results are most reliable when the data are collected from randomly selected subjects, and when sample sizes are sufficiently large that they produce appropriate statistical power. The Chi-square is also an excellent tool to use when violations of assumptions of equal variances and homoscedasticity are violated and parametric statistics such as the t-test and ANOVA cannot provide reliable results. As the Chi-Square and its strength test, the Cramer’s V are both simple to compute, it is an especially convenient tool for researchers in the field where statistical programs may not be easily accessed. However, most statistical programs provide not only the Chi-square and Cramer’s V, but also a variety of other non-parametric tools for both significance and strength testing. Potential conflict of interest None declared.

Answer #1

**categorical** data. That
means that the data has been counted and divided into categories.
It will not work with parametric or continuous data. Also the test
does not require any Distribution. T**his test is distribution
free**.As like non parametric tests the chi square
test also use when the certain assumption is does not follow by the
parametric test like equal variance,normality,independency etc.The
chi square distribution can handle more than two categories. So the
overall chi square test is good as compair to other test.

A friend from your statistics study group, Jack, gave this
observation during a study session:
“Assuming the null hypothesis is true, the expected value of
every test statistic we have seen this semester, whether it is a z,
t, or chi-square test statistic, is 0.”
Form an appropriate response for your study group regarding Jack's
statement.
In your response, be sure to comment on the following:
1) For z tests about population proportions: what is the
distribution and the corresponding...

Match the terms with their definitions. Most of this information
is from the chapters you have read in Cronk so far. They can also
be found in various places throughout your textbook.
Answer Choose...Paired-samples t test, Inferential statistics,
Descriptive statistics, Non-parametric inferential statistical
procedures, Chi-square, Correlation, Independent-samples t test,
Parametric inferential statistical procedure
1) This parametric statistical procedure is used when you have a
dependent variable that is interval (1, 2, 3, 4, .....and so on),
and an independent variable...

Use the GSS dataset to answer the questions below. All analysis
must be completed using your own GSS data set. Failure to use your
own GSS data set will result in a zero for the question. As above,
you will need to read and interpret the question to determine which
statistical test is appropriate, as well as whether it is a
one-tailed or two-tailed test. Similar to the questions above, you
must: 1. State the null and research hypotheses 2....

A high school principal recruits 18 instructors for teaching
training. Each of the 18 individuals is randomly assigned to one of
two groups (T= traditional methods, E=experimental methods). After
the instructors spend 3 months on the job, the principal ranks them
on the basis of their performance, from 1 (worst) to 18 (best),
with the following results.
T: 2 3 5 9
10 12 13 14 15
E: 1 4 6 7
8 11 16 17
18
The principal wants...

A high school principal recruits 18 instructors for teaching
training. Each of the 18 individuals is randomly assigned to one of
two groups (T= traditional methods, E=experimental methods). After
the instructors spend 3 months on the job, the principal ranks them
on the basis of their performance, from 1 (worst) to 18 (best),
with the following results.
T: 2 3 5 9
10 12 13 14 15
E: 1 4 6 7
8 11 16 17
18
The principal wants...

In a 2011 study, medical researchers from Rutgers University
randomly assigned men to take selenium, vitamin E, both selenium
and vitamin E, or placebo. The researchers then followed up to see
if the men developed prostate cancer. In this table, the observed
count appears above the expected count in each cell.
Selenium
Vitamin E
Selenium and Vitamin E
Placebo
Total
No cancer
Observed
Expected
8177
8180.3
8117
8166.3
8147
8133.5
8167
8127.9
32608
Prostate Cancer
Observed
Expected
575
571.7
620...

1. If you want to study the effect of hormonal changes in
adolescent boys, your population would be
Group of answer choices
All adolescents
All the people in the world
All males
All adolescent males
2. Which of the following is most likely to be measured
categorically?
Group of answer choices
Weight gain in first year college students
Deterioration in driving performance under the influence of
alcohol
Level of authoritarianism in a sample of public accountants
Species of dog appearing...

Fingerprint analysis and blood grouping are features that do not
change through the lifetime of an individual. Fingerprint features
appear early in the development of a fetus, and blood types are
determined by genetics. Therefore, each is considered an effective
tool for identification of individuals. These characteristics are
also of interest in the discipline of biological anthropology—a
scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral
aspects of human beings.
The relationship between these characteristics was the subject
of a study...

A study was done to investigate whether a relationship existed
between HPV (human papillomavirus) status and HIV infection status.
HPV status and HIV infection status were obtained for 97 women.
Table of hpv by hiv
hpv
hiv
Frequency
Expected
Row Pct
Seropositive/Symptomatic
Seropositive/Asymptomatic
Seronegative
Total
Positive
23
12.928
60.53
5
7.4433
13.16
10
17.629
26.32
38
Negative
10
20.072
16.95
14
11.557
23.73
35
27.371
59.32
59
Total
33
19
45
97
Statistic
DF
Value
Prob
Chi-Square
2
19.6478
<.0001...

4. In a 1985 study of the effectiveness of streptokinase in the
treatment of patients who have been hospitalized after myocardial
infarction, 9 of 199 males receiving streptokinase and 13 of 97
males in the control group died within 12 months. In this case, you
will be asked to practice using two different types of statistical
methods to test the hypothesis.
1) If you are going to use proportional test (under normal
theory), what criteria needs to fulfill first and...

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