Question

Question:

Please indicate if the following are independent or paired samples
of t-tests:

a) Attitudes of 8th graders toward art before and after visiting a
museum on a field trip

b) Differences in political opinions of father and sons

c) Differences in rates of attendance at Rutgers football games for
students raised in New Jersey and those raised
in Pennsylvania

d) Differences between freshman and sophomores in the class on time
spent studying

e) A comparison between education levels of the youngest and the
oldest children in a family

Here's what I think the answers are:

a) Paired - Repeated Measures

b) Paired- Natural

c) Independent

d) Independent

e) Paired- Natural

I know how to calculate the t value for independent and dependent
variables, but I'm terrible at discerning if a two-sample t test is
an independent or a paired sample to begin with (unless it is
stated in the problem).

I keep going over the definitions for each type, but I am still
confused. I know that in an independent sample the groups do not
relate to each other and there's no logical pairing for x and y.
While in paired samples the groups are dependent/related to each
other. There are 3 main types of paired samples those being natural
pairs, matched pairs, and repeated measures.

~Natural Pairs- the two groups are naturally related ex) parents
& children, identical twins

~Matched Pairs- individuals are paired by the researcher before the
experiment ex) a control group & a treatment
group,

~ Repeated Measures- measurements are taken at two different times
ex) pre-test & post test, before & after

I would appreciate any help to understand the difference between
independent and paired samples for real world examples, thank
you.

Answer #1

Yes, the definitions of independent and paired t-test are correct.

The two-sample t-test is an independent t-test since both the samples are used. In paired t-test, the difference is used.

a, b, c and d are correct but the last e is not the example of paired t-test. Because of the youngest and oldest children, education levels may differ. Both have their own choice, so they do not depend on each other. That's why they are not considered as paired samples. Youngest and oldest both are different objects. So it is the example of independent test.

What is precisely the difference in the situation for
independent samples and matched paired samples t-test that lead to
different types of computation of t-values.

A repeated-measures design deals with the differences of the
means, while an independent-measures design deals with the mean of
the differences."
True False
A repeated-measures design study comparing two samples uses
_____ groups of participants and obtains ____ score(s) for each
participant.
"1, 1"
"1, 2"
"2, 1"
"2, 2"
A repeated-measures design is better than an
independent-measures design because it requires more subjects.
True False
A repeated-measures t-test is also called a within-subjects,
paired, or dependent t-test. "
True...

When we compute an independent-samples t-test, we are
looking to see if there are significant differences between the
means of two independent groups, each measured on a different level
of the independent variable.
True or False
When we compute a paired-samples t-test, we are looking
to see if there are significant differences between the means of
two independent groups, each measured on a different level of the
independent variable.
True or False
If the p-value is > than 0.05, the...

Select the statement that is true.
The independent variable is only used in the independent t-test
and the dependent variable is only used in the dependent
t-test.
The independent t-test is never used in a calculation with more
than two groups or sets of data.
Independent means that the independent t-test is not related to
any other type of t-test.
The matched pairs t-test will usually have greater variance than
the independent t-test when using the same variables.

QUESTION 1
The samples are necessarily considered a dependent when
a.
repeated measures are made on the same subjects
b.
both groups consist of males
c.
both groups consist of 8th grade pupils
d.
any of the above is true
QUESTION 2
Observations are dependent when
a.
the same subjects have been used for both sets of
observations
b.
subjects have been matched on some variable related to the
varialbe observed
c.
either of the above is true
d.
the...

Identify the appropriate statistical test for each research
description:
Single-sample z-test
Single-samplet-test
Independent samples t-test
Related samples t-test (repeated measures or matched
samples)
Correlation
A researcher would like to determine whether an over-the-counter
cold medication has an effect on mental alertness. A sample of n =
16 participants is obtained, and each person is given a standard
dose of the medication one hour before being tested in a driving
simulation task. For the general population, scores on the
simulation task...

QUESTION 25
Suppose we expand the study described in Question #24. Instead
of looking only at juniors and seniors, we also take random samples
of freshmen and sophomores. Which inferential statistical test
would we use to determine whether there is a statistically
significant effect of year-in-college on exam scores?
independent-samples t test/two-sample t test
dependent-samples t test / matched-pairs t
test / related-samples t test / paired t test
chi-square
one-way ANOVA
factorial ANOVA

What is the difference between a t test for independent
samples and a t test for related (dependent) samples?
Give an example of when you would use each?

Political bias in academia and a paired-samples
t test: The following is an excerpt from the
abstract (brief opening summary) from a published research study
that examined a reported bias against conservatives in American
academia (Fosse, Gross, & Ma, 2011).
The American professoriate contains a disproportionate number
of people with liberal political views. Is this because of
political bias or discrimination?…We sent two emails to directors
of graduate study in the leading American departments of sociology,
political science, economics, history,...

discuss the differences between a one-sample z-test, one-sample
t-test, the independent samples t-test and the dependent samples
t-test. Specifically, under what circumstances would you conduct
each test and what type of information comes from a known/defined
population versus your sample data?

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