Question

Prenatal vitamins and Autism. Researchers studying the link between prenatal vitamin use and autism surveyed the...

Prenatal vitamins and Autism. Researchers studying the link between prenatal vitamin use and autism surveyed the mothers of a random sample of children aged 24 - 60 months with autism and conducted another separate random sample for children with typical development. The table below shows the number of mothers in each group who did and did not use prenatal vitamins during the three months before pregnancy.

 Prenatal Vitamin Autism Typical Development Total No vitamin 116 68 184 Vitamin 147 166 313 Total 263 234 497

Conduct the hypothesis test for the stated null and alternative. Use ?α = K and round numeric answers to four decimal places.

?0H0: The variables use of prenatal vitamins during the three months before pregnancy and autism are independent.

??HA: The variables use of prenatal vitamins during the three months before pregnancy and autism are not independent.

1. Enter the expected values for the hypothesis test in the table below, rounded to four decimal places.

 Prenatal Vitamin Autism Typical Development No vitamin Vitamin

2. Calculate the test statistic for this hypothesis test. ?2X2 =

3. Calculate the degrees of freedom for this hypothesis test.

4. Calculate the p-value for this hypothesis test. p-value =

5. Based on the p-value, we have:
A. strong evidence
B. some evidence
C. very strong evidence
D. little evidence
E. extremely strong evidence
that the null model is not a good fit for our observed data.

The statistical software output for this problem is :

(2) Test statistics is   = 12.0239

(3) Degrees of freedom = 1

(4) p-value = 0.0005

(5)  very strong evidence

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