Question

**Prenatal
vitamins and Autism.** Researchers studying the link between
prenatal vitamin use and autism surveyed the mothers of a random
sample of children aged 24 - 60 months with autism and conducted
another separate random sample for children with typical
development. The table below shows the number of mothers in each
group who did and did not use prenatal vitamins during the three
months before pregnancy.

Prenatal Vitamin | Autism | Typical Development | Total |

No vitamin | 108 | 64 | 172 |

Vitamin | 138 | 155 | 293 |

Total | 246 | 219 | 465 |

Conduct the hypothesis test for the stated null and alternative.
Use *α*α = K and round numeric answers to four decimal
places.

*H*0H0: The variables use of prenatal vitamins during the
three months before pregnancy and autism are independent.

*H**A*HA: The variables use of prenatal vitamins
during the three months before pregnancy and autism are not
independent.

1. Enter the expected values for the hypothesis test in the table below, rounded to four decimal places.

Prenatal Vitamin | Autism | Typical Development |

No vitamin | ||

Vitamin |

2. Calculate the test statistic for this hypothesis test.
*X*2X2 =

3. Calculate the degrees of freedom for this hypothesis test.

4. Calculate the p-value for this hypothesis test. p-value =

5. What is your conclusion using *α*α = 0.05?

**A.** Reject *H*0H0

**B.** Do not reject *H*0H0

Answer #1

Prenatal vitamins and Autism. Researchers
studying the link between prenatal vitamin use and autism surveyed
the mothers of a random sample of children aged 24 - 60 months with
autism and conducted another separate random sample for children
with typical development. The table below shows the number of
mothers in each group who did and did not use prenatal vitamins
during the three months before pregnancy.
Prenatal Vitamin
Autism
Typical Development
Total
No vitamin
109
63
172
Vitamin
138
156...

Prenatal vitamins and Autism. Researchers
studying the link between prenatal vitamin use and autism surveyed
the mothers of a random sample of children aged 24 - 60 months with
autism and conducted another separate random sample for children
with typical development. The table below shows the number of
mothers in each group who did and did not use prenatal vitamins
during the three months before pregnancy.
Prenatal Vitamin
Autism
Typical Development
Total
No vitamin
116
67
183
Vitamin
146
165...

Prenatal
vitamins and Autism. Researchers studying the link between
prenatal vitamin use and autism surveyed the mothers of a random
sample of children aged 24 - 60 months with autism and conducted
another separate random sample for children with typical
development. The table below shows the number of mothers in each
group who did and did not use prenatal vitamins during the three
months before pregnancy.
Prenatal Vitamin
Autism
Typical Development
Total
No vitamin
112
66
178
Vitamin
143
161...

Prenatal vitamins and Autism. Researchers
studying the link between prenatal vitamin use and autism surveyed
the mothers of a random sample of children aged 24 - 60 months with
autism and conducted another separate random sample for children
with typical development. The table below shows the number of
mothers in each group who did and did not use prenatal vitamins
during the three months before pregnancy.
Prenatal Vitamin
Autism
Typical Development
Total
No vitamin
112
66
178
Vitamin
143
161...

Prenatal vitamins and Autism. Researchers
studying the link between prenatal vitamin use and autism surveyed
the mothers of a random sample of children aged 24 - 60 months with
autism and conducted another separate random sample for children
with typical development. The table below shows the number of
mothers in each group who did and did not use prenatal vitamins
during the three months before pregnancy.
Prenatal Vitamin
Autism
Typical Development
Total
No vitamin
110
65
175
Vitamin
141
158...

6.34 Prenatal vitamins and Autism: Researchers
studying the link between prenatal vitamin use and autism surveyed
the mothers of a random sample of children aged 24 - 60 months with
autism and conducted another separate random sample for children
with typical development. The table below shows the number of
mothers in each group who did and did not use prenatal vitamins
during the three months before pregnancy (periconceptional period).
(Schmidt, 2011)
Autism
Typical Development
Total
No vitamin
111
70
181...

Suppose a cost-benefit study is conducted to measure the impact
of prenatal vitamin usage to improve birth outcomes and long-term
health of children. The costs are incurred during pregnancy, while
the benefits extend over a long timeframe. Suppose further, that
the researchers conclude that prenatal vitamins are cost-effective
using a 2% discount rate. However, most cost-benefit studies use a
discount rate of 3-5%. Explain whether the use of a lower than
typical discount rate makes these results more convincing or...

Match each of the research designs below to the
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z Test
Single Sample t-Test
Paired Samples t-Test
Independent Samples t-test
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Variance
One-way Within-Subjects Analysis of
Variance
Two-way Analysis of Variance
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Question 1
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