A political scientist wanted to learn whether there is an association between the education level of registered voters and his or her political party affiliation. He randomly selected 46 registered voters and ran a Chisquare test of Independence and Homogeneity in SPSS. The following is the test result from SPSS:
Education * Party Crosstabulation 

Party 
Total 

Democrat 
Republican 

Education 
College 
Count 
9 
12 
21 
Expected Count 
11.9 
9.1 
21.0 

Grade School 
Count 
7 
2 
9 

Expected Count 
5.1 
3.9 
9.0 

High School 
Count 
10 
6 
16 

Expected Count 
9.0 
7.0 
16.0 

Total 
Count 
26 
20 
46 

Expected Count 
26.0 
20.0 
46.0 
ChiSquare Tests 

Value 
df 
Asymp. Sig. (2sided) 

Pearson ChiSquare 
3.483^{a} 
2 
.175 
Likelihood Ratio 
3.598 
2 
.165 
N of Valid Cases 
46 

a. 1 cells (16.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 3.91. 
Choose the appropriate null and alternative hypothesis
a. 
H1: The education level and the party affiliation are NOT uniformly distributed. 

b. 


c. 
H1: The education level and the party affiliation are NOT independent. 

d. 
H1: The education level and the party affiliation are NOT associated. 

e. 
H1: The education level and the party affiliation are independent. 
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