Question

Inductive generalizations have this form:1. X percent of the observed members of group A have property B. (the sample)2.Thus, about X percent of A have property B. (the generalization from the sample)For instance: 1. 40% of the pickles you have pulled out of the barrel are very good.2.Therefore, about 40% of the pickles in the barrel are very good.To assess the strength or weakness of inductive generalizations (arguments which generalize from sample sets), logicians run through 3 checks:

CHECK #1: Is the appropriate population being sampled? You would be making a logical error if you have a sample of female college freshman and you generalize to a conclusion about elderly men.

CHECK #2: Is the sample truly random? To be a good/strong argument, the sample must be representative of the population it is targeting. The easiest way to ensure this is to have a truly random sample. If the sample is not representative (e.g. if you ask those over 40 what they think about Avengers movies, then generalize what people think about Avengers movies, you have made a logical error: those over 40 are only one part of “people” and not representative of all people.)

CHECK #3: Are there enough members in the sample set? Even if someone is randomly chosen from the U.S. you cannot generalize and conclude with probability who will win the next presidential election from one person’s opinion. The sample set (one person to generalize about all Americans) is too small, even if he/she was randomly chosen.

**Question**: 2/3 of the randomly chosen adults in New
York City identify themselves as “pro-choice” in the abortion
debate. And 70% of the randomly chosen adults in San Francisco do.
This makes the situation clear: A large majority of the people in
this country are pro-choice.

Answer #1

For the given problem: In order to reach the conclusion, a large majority of the people in this country are pro-choice, a sample of randomly chosen adults from two major cities is studied.

CHECK #1: Here, the population is the whole citizens of the country, The random sample is chosen from two major cities of the country. We find that the population being sampled is appropriate.

CHECK #2: As stated in the problem, the samples were chosen randomly. However, the samples are randomly chosen only from urban population of two of the most forward cities.Generalizing it to the population of the whole country would need a second look.

CHECK #3: The sample approximately accounts for 2% of the population, which might be adequate for generalization according to the maximum 10% rule for samples greater than 1000.

Inductive generalizations have this form:1. X percent of the
observed members of group A have property B. (the sample)2.Thus,
about X percent of A have property B. (the generalization from the
sample)For instance: 1. 40% of the pickles you have pulled out of
the barrel are very good.2.Therefore, about 40% of the pickles in
the barrel are very good.To assess the strength or weakness of
inductive generalizations (arguments which generalize from sample
sets), logicians run through 3 checks:
CHECK #1:...

Inductive generalizations have this form:1. X percent of the
observed members of group A have property B. (the sample)2.Thus,
about X percent of A have property B. (the generalization from the
sample)For instance: 1. 40% of the pickles you have pulled out of
the barrel are very good.2.Therefore, about 40% of the pickles in
the barrel are very good.To assess the strength or weakness of
inductive generalizations (arguments which generalize from sample
sets), logicians run through 3 checks:
CHECK #1:...

1.) Although 24% of all Martians have three eyes, only
6% of the members of the Martian Senate are
three-eyed.
Which of the following conclusions may be validly drawn
from this discrepancy?
This is clear evidence of eyeism. Differences in outcome such as
this one prove definitively that Martian society is overrun with
eyeists.
While this doesn’t necessarily prove that Mars is overrun by
eyeists, it does show that systemic eyeism must be a big problem on
the red planet....

1.In the following problem, check that it is appropriate to use
the normal approximation to the binomial. Then use the normal
distribution to estimate the requested probabilities.
More than a decade ago, high levels of lead in the blood put 86% of
children at risk. A concerted effort was made to remove lead from
the environment. Now, suppose only 8% of children in the United
States are at risk of high blood-lead levels.
(a) In a random sample of 216...

1. When should the government intervene in society? Once we have
chosen the path of intervention what options/factors need to be
considered? How have opinions evolved over time? How might
interventions differ between various levels of government
(local/state/federal)?
2. People often call America the “Land of the Free”. Describe,
with the theoretical tools we have discussed, how our market-based
system contributes to that moniker. People have also contended that
America is a country where some are systematically disadvantaged.
Why might...

1. A random number generator is used to select a number from 1
to
500 ?(inclusively).
What is the probability of selecting the number 595
?
What is the probability?
2.Identify the sample space of the probability experiment and
determine the number of outcomes in the sample space.
-Randomly choosing an even number between 10 and 20,
inclusive
The sample space is?
(Use a comma to separate answers)
There are _____ outcomes in the sample space
3. Determine the number...

What role could the governance of ethics have played
if it had been in existence in the organization? Assess the
leadership of Enron from an ethical perspective.
THE FALL OF ENRON: A STAKEHOLDER FAILURE
Once upon a time, there was a gleaming headquarters
office tower in Houston, with a giant tilted "£"' in front, slowly
revolving in the Texas sun. The Enron Corporation, which once
ranked among the top Fortune 500 companies, collapsed in 2001 under
a mountain of debt...

CASE STUDY – Jacobson Carpet Company
In January 2002, Ms. Mary Lewis was preparing to meet with Mr.
Carpenter, President of Jacobson Carpet Company.
Ms. Lewis assumed that the meeting was related to the recent
Board of directors of the company. As a direct assistant
to the President, she knew from experience that this type of
meeting often resulted in a project to be studied. Her
expectation was confirmed as soon as Mr. Carpenter began to
inform her of the...

Mattel Responds to Ethical Challenges Business Ethics This case
was written by Debbie Thorne, John Fraedrich, O. C. Ferrell, and
Jennifer Jackson, with the editorial assistance of Jennifer
Sawayda. This case was developed for classroom discussion rather
than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of an
administrative, ethical, or legal discussion by management. All
sources used for this case were obtained through publicly available
material. Mattel, Inc. is a world leader in the design,
manufacture, and marketing of family...

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