Question

?In an article titled “Unilateral Nostril Breathing Influences Lateralized Cognitive Performance” that appeared in Brain and Cognition (1989), researchers Block et al. published results from an experiment involving assessments of spatial and verbal cognition when breathing through only the right versus left nostril. The subjects were 30 male and 30 female right-handed introductory psychology students who volunteered to participate in exchange for course credit. Initial testing on spatial and verbal tests revealed the following summary statistics. Note that the scores on the spatial task can range from 0 to 40, whereas those on the verbal task can go from 0 to 20. The distributions are not strongly skewed on either scale or for males or females. Consider comparing males to females with regard to performance on the spatial assessment task. State the appropriate null and alternative hypotheses in the context of the study. Null: The average spatial score for men is the same as for the women. Alt: The average spatial score for men is greater than for women.Null: The average spatial score for men is the same as for women. Alt: The average spatial score for men is different than for women.Null: The average spatial score for men is different than for women. Alt: The average spatial score for men is the same as for women.Null: The average spatial score for men is greater than for women. Alt: The average spatial score for men is the same as for women. Explain why it is valid to use the theory-based method for producing a p-value to test the hypotheses stated in part (a). The sample sizes are at least 20 in both groups, and the data are strongly skewed within each group. The sample sizes are less than 20 in each group, and the data are not strongly skewed within either group. The sample sizes are less than 20 in each group, and the data are strongly skewed within each group. The sample sizes are at least 20 in both groups, and the data are not strongly skewed within either group. Use an applet to carry out the appropriate test to produce a p-value to test the hypotheses stated in part (a) and interpret the p-value. (Round the test statistic to 2 decimal places, e.g. 1.58, and the p-value to 4 decimal places, e.g. 0.5863.) ?p-value = The probability of obtaining a t-statistic of or larger or or smaller is if the null hypothesis is true. Find a 95% confidence interval for the difference in mean scores of males and females with regard to performance on spatial assessments. (Round your answers to 3 decimal places, e.g. 0.586.) ?95% CI: (, ) We are 95% confident that men have an average spatial score between and higher than women. Based on your p-value, state a conclusion in the context of the study. We have no evidence that the average spatial score is significantly higher for men than for women. This is not necessarily a cause-and-effect conclusion, nor can the result be confidently generalized to a broader population since the sample was not obtained randomly from a larger population. We have strong evidence that the average spatial score is significantly higher for men than for women. This is not necessarily a cause-and-effect conclusion, nor can the result be confidently generalized to a broader population since the sample was not obtained randomly from a larger population. We have no evidence that the average spatial score is significantly higher for men than for women. This is a cause-and-effect conclusion, and the result be confidently generalized to a broader population since the sample was obtained randomly from a larger population. We have strong evidence that the average spatial score is significantly higher for men than for women. This is a cause-and-effect conclusion, and the result be confidently generalized to a broader population since the sample was obtained randomly from a larger population. Repeat the investigation comparing males and females, this time on verbal performance. State the appropriate null and alternative hypotheses in the context of the study. Null: The average verbal score for men is different than for women. Alt: The average verbal score for men is greater than for women.Null: The average verbal score for men is the same as for women. Alt: The average verbal score for men is less than for women.Null: The average verbal score for men is the same as for women. Alt: The average verbal score for men is different than for women.Null: The average verbal score for men is the different than for women. Alt: The average verbal score for men is same as for women. Explain why it is valid to use the theory-based method for producing a p-value to test the hypotheses stated in part (f). The sample sizes are at least 20 in both groups and the data are strongly skewed within each group.The sample sizes are less than 20 in each group and the data are strongly skewed within each group.The sample sizes are at least 20 in both groups and the data are not strongly skewed within either group.The sample sizes are less than 20 in each group and the data are not strongly skewed within either group. Use an applet to carry out the appropriate test to produce a p-value to test the hypotheses stated in part (f) and interpret the p-value. (Round the test statistic to 2 decimal places, e.g. 1.58.) ?p-value < 0.10.00010.0010.010.05 The probability of obtaining a t-statistic of or larger or or smaller is less than 0.00010.010.0010.050.1 if the null hypothesis is true. Find a 95% confidence interval for the difference in mean scores of males and females with regard to performance on verbal assessments. Interpret the interval. (Round your answers to 2 decimal places, e.g. 0.58.) ?95% CI: (, ) We are 95% confident that ?men have average verbal scores between and lower than women. Based on your p-value, state a conclusion in the context of the study of verbal tests. We have strong evidence that the average verbal score is significantly higher for women than for men. This is a cause-and-effect conclusion, and the result can be confidently generalized to a broader population since the sample was not obtained randomly from a larger population. We have no evidence that the average verbal score is significantly higher for women than for men. This is a cause-and-effect conclusion, and the result can be confidently generalized to a broader population since the sample was not obtained randomly from a larger population. We have no evidence that the average verbal score is significantly higher for women than for men. This is not necessarily a cause-and-effect conclusion, nor can the result be confidently generalized to a broader population since the sample was not obtained randomly from a larger population. We have strong evidence that the average verbal score is significantly higher for women than for men. This is not necessarily a cause-and-effect conclusion, nor can the result be confidently generalized to a broader population since the sample was not obtained randomly from a larger population.

Answer #1

(a) Consider comparing males to females with regard to performance on the spatial assessment task. State the appropriate null and alternative hypotheses in the context of the study.

Null hypothesis H0: The average spatial score for men is the same as for the women.

Alternative hypothesis H1: The average spatial score for men is greater than for women.

(b) Explain why it is valid to use the theory-based method for producing a p-value to test the hypotheses stated in part (a).

The sample sizes are less than 20 in each group, and the data are not strongly skewed within either group.

For remaining questions sample data is needed.

please post the remaining questions in another post with data.

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