Question

# A researcher is interested in whether the number of years of formal education is related to...

A researcher is interested in whether the number of years of formal education is related to a person's decision to never smoke, continue to smoke, or quit smoking cigarettes. The data below represent the smoking status by level of education for residents of the United States 18 years or older from a random sample of 300 residents. Round all numeric answers to four decimal places.

 Smoking Status Education Level Current Former Never Less than high school 26 14 26 High school 14 16 30 Some College 29 40 105

1. Select the name of the test that should be used to assess the hypotheses:

?0H0: "Smoking Status" is independent of "Education Level"

??HA: "Smoking Status" is not independent of "Education Level"

A. ?2X2 goodness of fit
B. ?2X2 test of a single variance
C. ?2X2 test of independence

2. Under the null hypothesis, what is the expected number for people with an education of High school and a smoking status of Former?

3. Calculate the ?2X2 test statistic.

4.What was the contribution of Former smokers who attended High school toward this test statistic?

5. What are the degrees of freedom for this test?

6. What is the p-value for this test?

7. Based on the p-value, we have:
A. strong evidence
B. some evidence
C. little evidence
D. extremely strong evidence
E. very strong evidence
that the null model is not a good fit for our observed data.

8. Which of the following is a necessary condition in order for the hypothesis test results to be valid? Check all that apply.

A. There must be at least 10 "yes" and 10 "no" observations for each variable.
B. There must be an observed count of at least 5 in every cell of the table.
C. There must be an expected count of at least 5 in every cell of the table.
D. The population data must be normally distributed.
E. The observations must be independent of one another.

The statistical software output for this problem is :

?2 test of independence

Expected number = 14

Test statistics = 15.2731

Degrees of freedom = 4

P-value = 0.0042

very strong evidence

8)

C. There must be an expected count of at least 5 in every cell of the table.

Conclusion :

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