Question

# A researcher is interested in whether the number of years of formal education is related to...

A researcher is interested in whether the number of years of formal education is related to a person's decision to never smoke, continue to smoke, or quit smoking cigarettes. The data below represent the smoking status by level of education for residents of the United States 18 years or older from a random sample of 400 residents. Round all numeric answers to four decimal places.

 Smoking Status Education Level Current Former Never Less than high school 36 18 34 High school 22 20 38 Some College 30 62 140

1. Select the name of the test that should be used to assess the hypotheses:

?0H0: "Smoking Status" is independent of "Education Level"

??HA: "Smoking Status" is not independent of "Education Level"

A. ?2X2 test of independence
B. ?2X2 goodness of fit
C. ?2X2 test of a single variance

2. Under the null hypothesis, what is the expected number for people with an education of Some college and a smoking status of Former?

3. Calculate the ?2X2 test statistic.

4.What was the contribution of Former smokers who attended Some college toward this test statistic?

5. What are the degrees of freedom for this test?

6. What is the p-value for this test?

7. Based on the p-value, we have:
A. little evidence
B. extremely strong evidence
C. some evidence
D. very strong evidence
E. strong evidence
that the null model is not a good fit for our observed data.

8. Which of the following is a necessary condition in order for the hypothesis test results to be valid? Check all that apply.

A. There must be at least 10 "yes" and 10 "no" observations for each variable.
B. The observations must be independent of one another.
C. There must be an observed count of at least 5 in every cell of the table.
D. The population data must be normally distributed.
E. There must be an expected count of at least 5 in every cell of the table.

The statistical software output for this problem is :

1)

A. ?2 test of independence

2)

expected number = 58

3)

Contribution of Former smokers who attended Some college toward this test statistic = 0.28

4)

degrees of freedom = 4

5)

p-value = 0.000

6)

D. very strong evidence

7)

B and E

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