Question

- For each of the following scenarios, identify:

- the population of interest,
- the outcome variable being measured on each observational unit,
- whether the outcome variable being measured is
*categorical or**quantitative/Continuous*, - the parameter of interest, define both in words and using the appropriate statistical symbol (π, π1 -π2, µ, µ1 - µ2, or µd), and
- the null and alternative hypotheses, written in correct
statistical notation (
**not**in words)

Name the hypothesis test you would use. For example, some tests we have learned are:

- one-sample t-test of the population mean
- one sample z-test of the population proportion
- independent two-sample pooled t-test for the difference between population means
- independent two-sample unpooled z-test for the difference between population means
- Paired t-test for 2 dependent samples
- independent two-sample z-test for the difference between population proportions
- McNemar test for dependent proportions
- Chi-square test for homogeneity
- Chi-square test for of independence

- A study was conducted looking at risk factors for HIV infection among intravenous drug users enrolled in a methadone program. Data was collected on family income (<$10,000, $10,000-$20,000, >$20,000) and the HIV antibody status (positive/negative) as assessed by blood testing at one point in time.

- Suppose from large studies we know that the mean cholesterol in children aged 2-14 is 175 mg/dL. We wish to see if there is a familial aggregation of cholesterol level. We identify a group of fathers who have elevated cholesterol levels (>250 mg/dL) and have had a heart attack and measure the cholesterol levels of their offspring within the 2-14 age range.

- To examine the safety of working in a nuclear power plant, we assess deaths due to cancer among all deaths at a particular power plant. Based on vital statistics, about 20% of all deaths can be attributed to some form of cancer.

- We wish to assess whether there is a relationship between bone mineral density and cigarette smoking. To approach this problem we have a sample of twin pairs, where one twin is a heavy smoking twin and the other twin is a lighter smoking.

- A randomized trial study is performed to compare survival (time to death in months) two chemotherapy drugs (A vs B) among cancer patients. A sample of cancer patients are randomly assigned to treatment A or B.

Answer #1

a.) The hypothesis is Chisquare test for homogeneity.The outcome
variable is standard deviation of sample population
s^{2}.Outcome variable is quantitative.

d.)The hypothesis is Chisquare test for homogeneity.The outcome
variable is standard deviation of sample population
s^{2}. Outcome variable is quantitative.

e.) The hypothesis is Chisquare test for independence. Outcome
variable is s^{2}. Outcome variable is
quanitative.

b.)The hypothesis is one sample t distribution.outcome variable is . Outcome variable is quantitative.

1. Several baseline studies are conducted on X = “cholesterol
level (mg/dL)” in a certain population of individuals. From the
given information described below for each of these studies, choose
the LETTER of the most appropriate statistical test to be
implemented, from the following list. Note: For each study, there
is only one correct choice of test. However, a given statistical
test can be the correct choice for more than one study. For
example, choice A could be the correct...

For the following experiment/question, pick the most appropriate
statistical test. You have the following statistical tests as
choices: some may be used more than once, others not at
all. Assume homogeneity of variance (where
applicable) and the validity of parametric tests (where
applicable), unless something is directly stated (e.g., “the data
are not at all normal”) or otherwise indicated (viz., by the
inspection of the data) which would indicate a strong and obvious
violation of an assumption. This means you must...

For the following experiment/question, pick the most appropriate
statistical test. You have the following statistical tests as
choices: some may be used more than once, others not at all. Assume
homogeneity of variance (where applicable) and the validity of
parametric tests (where applicable), unless something is directly
stated (e.g., “the data are not at all normal”) or otherwise
indicated (viz., by the inspection of the data) which would
indicate a strong and obvious violation of an assumption. This
means you...

For the following experiment/question, pick the most appropriate
statistical test. You have the following statistical tests as
choices: some may be used more than once, others not at
all. Assume homogeneity of variance (where
applicable) and the validity of parametric tests (where
applicable), unless something is directly stated (e.g., “the data
are not at all normal”) or otherwise indicated (viz., by the
inspection of the data) which would indicate a strong and obvious
violation of an assumption. This means you must...

2. For the following experiment/question, pick the most
appropriate statistical test. You have the following statistical
tests as choices: some may be used more than once, others not at
all. Assume homogeneity of variance (where applicable) and the
validity of parametric tests (where applicable), unless something
is directly stated (e.g., “the data are not at all normal”) or
otherwise indicated (viz., by the inspection of the data) which
would indicate a strong and obvious violation of an assumption.
This means...

For the following experiment/question, pick the most appropriate
statistical test. You have the following statistical tests as
choices: some may be used more than once, others not at
all. Assume homogeneity of variance (where
applicable) and the validity of parametric tests (where
applicable), unless something is directly stated (e.g., “the data
are not at all normal”) or otherwise indicated (viz., by the
inspection of the data) which would indicate a strong and obvious
violation of an assumption. This means you must...

For the following experiments/questions, pick the most
appropriate statistical test. You have the following statistical
tests as choices: some may be used more than once, others not at
all. Assume homogeneity of variance (where
applicable) and the validity of parametric tests (where
applicable), unless something is directly stated (e.g., “the data
are not at all normal”) or otherwise indicated (viz., by the
inspection of the data) which would indicate a strong and obvious
violation of an assumption. This means you must...

1. For the following experiment/question, pick the most
appropriate statistical test. You have the following statistical
tests as choices: some may be used more than once, others not at
all. Assume homogeneity of variance (where applicable) and the
validity of parametric tests (where applicable), unless something
is directly stated (e.g., “the data are not at all normal”) or
otherwise indicated (viz., by the inspection of the data) which
would indicate a strong and obvious violation of an assumption.
This means...

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