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Researchers wanted to explore self-esteem in adolescent boys and adolescent girls. Each respondent completed a 10-item self-esteem scale (they chose one rating for each item from a Likert-type scale, 1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree). The sum of the 10 ratings was each respondent's self-esteem score. Their results were: t = 2.01, d = .90 (40 girls, 40 boys).

Use the scenario presented above to answer the following questions:

1. What statistical test did the researchers use to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in levels of self-esteem between the boys and the girls?

2. What was the purpose of calculating a Cohen's d? When is a Cohen's d calculated? Interpret d=.90. What does it mean in this example?

3. What if the researcher compared the adolescent boys before treatment and again after treating them for depression? What type of t-test would be most appropriate in this case, and why?

Answer #1

(1)

The statistical test the researchers used to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in levels of self-esteem between the boys and the girls:

**2 independent samples t test**

(2)

(i)

The purpose of calculating a Cohen's d is calculate Effect Size d, which is the standardized difference between two means.

(ii)

A Cohen's d is calculated when we want to find out how much is the difference between two means.

(iii)

Since d = 0.90 is greater than 0.8, we conclude the Effect Size is large, i.e., the difference between two means.is large.

(3)

If the researcher compared the adolescent boys before treatment
and again after treating them for depression, **dependent samples t - test (paired t
test)** would be most appropriate in this case because the 2
samples are not independent. The same sample is measured twice:
before treatment and again after treating them for depression.

General Information: Use the following information to ensure
successful completion of the assignment: Researchers wanted to
explore self-esteem in adolescent boys and adolescent girls. Each
respondent completed a 10-item self-esteem scale (they chose one
rating for each item from a Likert-type scale, 1 = strongly
disagree and 5 = strongly agree). The sum of the 10 ratings was
each respondent's self-esteem score. Their results were: t = 2.01,
d = .90 (40 girls, 40 boys). This assignment uses a rubric....

DIRECTIONS: This is an open book, take home examination. You may
look up the answers and discuss them, if you wish. The Multiple
Choice questions will be worth 1 point each and the essay questions
will be worth 25 points each. This examination is over Chapters 6
through 9. MULTIPLE CHOICE: 1. During Piaget's concrete operational
stage, children a. are more egocentric than they were during the
preoperational period. b. often confuse appearances with reality.
c. are unable to reverse...

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