Question

PLEASE FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE PROPER TERM! THANKS

**Key Terms**

**----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------**

**Positive relationship --- Occurs in so far as pairs of
observations tend to occupy similar relative positions in their
respective distribution.**

**Negative relationship --- Occurs in so far as pairs of
observations tend to occupy dissimilar relative positions in their
respective distribution.**

**Scatterplot --- a graph containing a cluster of dots
that represents all pairs of observations.**

**Person correlation coefficient --- A number between –1
and +1 that describes the linear relationship between pairs of
quantitative variables.**

**Linear relationship --- A relationship that can be
described with a straight line.**

**Curvilinear relationship --- A relationship that can be
described with a curved line.**

**Correlation coefficient (r) --- A number between –1 and
+1 that describes the relationship between pairs of
variables**

**Correlation matrix --- Table showing correlations for
all possible pairs of variables.**

**Text Review**

**In previous chapters, we have examined individual data
sets representing collections of records or observations of some
characteristic that varied among individuals (e.g., height, weight,
and IQ scores, or popping time for kernels of corn and average
burning time for light bulbs). In statistics, since the values of
these characteristics vary among individuals, they are commonly
referred to as variables. In chapter 9, we will examine
relationships between two (dependent) variables. Therefore, we will
see pairs of observations. Please refer to the chart of “Guidelines
for Selecting the Appropriate Hypothesis Test,” which is located at
the inside page of the book cover. To understand the type (s) of
data better, please read Levels of Measurement in Appendix B (p.
483 to 489).**

** When
relative high values of one variable are paired with relatively
high values of the other variable, and low values are paired with
low values, the relationship is
(1)_____________________.**

**Another way to think of this is that values of one
variable increases as values of the other increase, while values of
one variable decrease as values of the other decrease. An example
of a positive relationship between two variables would be study
time and performance in statistics class. As study time
increases, performance in class will also increase. Thus,
relatively high values of each variable are paired and relatively
low values of each are paired.**

** When
pairs of observations occupy dissimilar and opposite relative
positions in their respective distributions, the relationship is
(2) _______________________. An example of a negative relationship
would be auto gas mileage and horsepower. As horsepower is
increased, gas mileage should decrease. Conversely, when horsepower
is decreased, gas mileage should increase.**

** It
may occur to you that certain variables may exist which would not
be related either positively or negatively. This happens to be
true. Consider, for example, hat size and IQ. Pairs of these
variables would not occupy either similar or dissimilar positions
in their respective distributions. If the pairs were graphed on a
scatterplot, no pattern would appear. These variables would be said
to have no relationship. A calculated correlation coefficient for
the two variables would be near zero.**

** The
graph that shows the relationship between variables as a cluster of
dots is called a (3)_____**

**______________. The pattern formed by the dot cluster is
significant. If the cluster has a slope from upper right to lower
left, it depicts a (4)______________________ relationship. If the
slope is from upper left to lower right, the relationship is
(5)___________________________. A dot cluster that lacks any
apparent slope reflects (6)__________________________. The more
closely a dot cluster approximates a straight line, the
(7)________________________ the relationship. When a relationship
can be described with a straight line, it is described as
(8)_________________________. When the dot cluster forms a curved
line, the relationship is said to be
(9)___________________________.**

** The
relationship between two variables that represent quantitative data
is described by a correlation coefficient and designated by the
symbol (10)__________. The correlation coefficient ranges in value
from (11)_________________ to (12)________________. The sign of
r indicates whether the relationship is
(13)_______________ or (14)___________________. The value of
r**

**indicates the (15)__________________________ of the
relationship. The correlation coefficient is referred to as the
(16)___________________ and was named after the British scientist
Karl Pearson.**

** Interpretation
of r is related to the direction and strength of the correlation.
The direction, either (17)___________________ or
(18)___________________, is indicated by the sign of the
correlation coefficient. The strength is reflected by the
(19)_____________________ of r. An r value of .50 or more in either
direction is typical of important relationships in most areas of
behavioral and educational research. The value of r cannot be
interpreted as a proportion or percent of some perfect
relationship.**

** The
Pearson r can be calculated using z score formula, but this is
never actually done in practice, partly because of the extra effort
required to convert the original data into z scores. The value of
the z score formula lies more in aiding with understanding of
correlation. The correlation coefficient is actually calculated
using the computation formula.**

** One
important concept to keep in mind is that a correlation coefficient
never provides information about cause and effect. Cause and effect
can only be proved by (20)_________________.**

** There
are other types of correlation coefficients designed for use in
various situations. For example, when the data consists of ranks, a
(21)________________________ correlation is used. When one variable
is quantitative and the other is qualitative, the result is a
(22)__________________ correlation coefficient. If both variables
represent ordered qualitative data, the resulting correlation
coefficient is called (23)__________________________.**

** When
every possible pairing of variables is reported, a correlation
(24)___________________ is produced. A correlation matrix is
particularly useful when many variables are being
studied.**

Answer #1

Here we have to fill in the blanks that is provided in the question. The correct answers are as follows :

1) Positive Relationship

2) Negative Relationship

3) Scatter Plot

4) Positive Relationship

5) Negative Relationship

6) No Correlation

7) Linear

8) Linear Relationship

9) Curvilinear

10) r

11) -1

12) +1

13) Negative

14) Positive

15) Linearity

16) Pearson Correlation Coefficient

17) Positive

18) Negative

19) Linear Relationship

20) Simple Linear Regression Analysis

21) Spearman

22) Odds Ratio

23) Goodman- Kruskal Gamma

24) Matrix

Question 16
Relationships are detected on a scatterplot by looking for a
tendency for:
The data points to cluster on a diagonal line.
The data points to cluster on a horizontal line.
The data points to cluster on a vertical line.
the data points to cluster around the center of the graph.
3 points
Question 17
If the high values on one variable tend to match the high values
on another variable for the cases in a sample, we say...

Match the statistics term with its BEST
definition.
Question 2 options:
A key requirement for using correlation and regression models is
to collect this type of data.
With bivariate data, the result of MINIMIZING the sum of squared
distances between the observed and predicted values (residuals) for
a linear model.
This quantity is computed by subtracting the observed response
variable from the predicted response variable.
With bivariate data, when one variable increases a second
variable decrease implies this relationship.
A...

a. If r is a negative number, then b (in the line of regression
) is negative.
true or false
b.The line of regression is use to predict the theoric average
value of y that we expect to occur when we know the value of x.
true or false
c. We can predict no matter the strength of the correlation
coefficient.
true or false
d. The set of all possible values of r is, {r: -1< r <
1
treu...

A scatter diagram is a graph that portrays a correlation between
a ________________variable and a _______________ variable.
The _________________ of _________________ is expressed as a
percent, its value is between 0 and 100%.
In plotting paired data in a scatter diagram, the independent
variable is scaled on the __________________.
If there is absolutely no relationship between two variables,
Pearson's r will equal _____.
________________________________________
If the coefficient of correlation is 0.80, the coefficient of
determination is _____.
________________________________________
The proportion...

A hypothesis test using a Pearson’s correlation coefficient is
an example of what?
A nonparametric statistic
A descriptive statistic
An inferential statistic
A power statistic
1 points
QUESTION 48
What would the scatter plot show for data that produce a Pearson
correlation of r = +0.88?
Points clustered close to a line that slopes down to the
right
Points clustered close to a line that slopes up to the right
Points widely scattered around a line that slopes up...

21) A study was recently conducted by Major League Baseball to
determine whether there is a correlation between attendance at
games and the record of home team's opponent. In this study, the
dependent variable would be _________________.
22) A correlation of -0.9 indicates a __________ relationship
between the variables.
23) The values of the regression coefficients are found such the
sum of the residuals is ___________.
24) If the R-square value for a simple linear regression model
is 0.80 and...

1. A researcher conducts a survey to determine the relationship
between aptitude for mathematics and musical ability. She finds a
perfect relationship. High levels of mathematics aptitude are
associated with low levels of musical ability. Given this
information, what is the value of the correlation coefficient for
the above study? ______________
2. You obtain a score of 80 on a test. If the test is graded on
a ‘curve’ (based on how you did in comparison with the class as...

4) Suppose you want to find out if there is a relationship
between anxiety and sleep deprivation. So you go out and find 7
people and measure how much anxiety they are experiencing in their
lives and how many hours of sleep they are getting.
Let X be the explanatory variable to describe anxiety, you
obtain the following values for X in order from subject 1 to
subject 7: 1, 2, 4, 4, 5, 8, 7 Let Y be the...

A residual is:
The difference between a data point
and the regression line.
A value that can be 1 or zero.
A value that is always negative
because it is a difference
The difference between two different
lines.
The properties of r include:
r is sensitive to very high
quantities
The value of r is not affected if the
values of either variable are converted into a different scale
You must define the independent and
dependent variables
All of the...

1. Pick a minimum of 20 observations on any subject. This will
include a dependent variable plus two independent variables that
you may think are either negatively or positively correlated with
the dependent variable. List the observed data (include the
source). Then do the following:
a. State before doing any calculations whether you think they
are positively or negatively correlated. What is your
rationale?
Example: I test for a correlation between the quantity of coffee
that people buy (Y) with...

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