Question

# Inorganic phosphorous is a naturally occurring element in all plants and animals, with concentrations increasing progressively...

Inorganic phosphorous is a naturally occurring element in all plants and animals, with concentrations increasing progressively up the food chain (fruit < vegetables < cereals < nuts < corpse). Geochemical surveys take soil samples to determine phosphorous content (in ppm, parts per million). A high phosphorous content may or may not indicate an ancient burial site, food storage site, or even a garbage dump. The Hill of Tara is a very important archaeological site in Ireland. It is by legend the seat of Ireland's ancient high kings†. Independent random samples from two regions in Tara gave the following phosphorous measurements (ppm). Assume the population distributions of phosphorous are mound-shaped and symmetric for these two regions.

 Region I: x1; n1 = 12 540 810 790 790 340 800 890 860 820 640 970 720
 Region II: x2; n2 = 16 750 870 700 810 965 350 895 850 635 955 710 890 520 650 280 993

(a) Use a calculator with mean and standard deviation keys to calculate x1, s1, x2, and s2. (Round your answers to one decimal place.)

 x1 =  ppm s1 =  ppm x2 =  ppm s2 =  ppm

(b) Let μ1 be the population mean for x1 and let μ2 be the population mean for x2. Find an 80% confidence interval for μ1μ2. (Round your answers to one decimal place.)

 lower limit ppm upper limit ppm

(c) Explain what the confidence interval means in the context of this problem. Does the interval consist of numbers that are all positive? all negative? of different signs? At the 80% level of confidence, is one region more interesting than the other from a geochemical perspective?

Because the interval contains both positive and negative numbers, we can not say that one region is more interesting than the other.Because the interval contains only negative numbers, we can say that region II is more interesting than region I.     Because the interval contains only positive numbers, we can say that region I is more interesting than region II.We can not make any conclusions using this confidence interval.

(d) Which distribution (standard normal or Student's t) did you use? Why?

Student's t was used because σ1 and σ2 are unknown.Student's t was used because σ1 and σ2 are known.     Standard normal was used because σ1 and σ2 are known.Standard normal was used because σ1 and σ2 are unknown.

from excel:

a)

x1 =average(Array) =747.5

s1 =stdev(array) =170.4

x2=738.9

s2 =212.1

b)

 Point estimate of differnce =x1-x2     = 8.563 for 80 % CI & 11 df value of t= 1.363 from excel: t.inv(0.9,11) margin of error E=t*std error                   = 98.596 lower bound=mean difference-E     = -90 Upper bound=mean differnce +E      = 107.2

Because the interval contains both positive and negative numbers, we can not say that one region is more interesting than the other
d)

Student's t was used because σ1 and σ2 are unknown.

#### Earn Coins

Coins can be redeemed for fabulous gifts.