Inorganic phosphorous is a naturally occurring element in all plants and animals, with concentrations increasing progressively up the food chain (fruit < vegetables < cereals < nuts < corpse). Geochemical surveys take soil samples to determine phosphorous content (in ppm, parts per million). A high phosphorous content may or may not indicate an ancient burial site, food storage site, or even a garbage dump. The Hill of Tara is a very important archaeological site in Ireland. It is by legend the seat of Ireland's ancient high kings†. Independent random samples from two regions in Tara gave the following phosphorous measurements (ppm). Assume the population distributions of phosphorous are mound-shaped and symmetric for these two regions.
|Region I: x1; n1 = 12|
|Region II: x2; n2 = 16|
(a) Use a calculator with mean and standard deviation keys to calculate x1, s1, x2, and s2. (Round your answers to one decimal place.)
(b) Let μ1 be the population mean for x1 and let μ2 be the population mean for x2. Find an 80% confidence interval for μ1 − μ2. (Round your answers to one decimal place.)
(c) Explain what the confidence interval means in the context of this problem. Does the interval consist of numbers that are all positive? all negative? of different signs? At the 80% level of confidence, is one region more interesting than the other from a geochemical perspective?
Because the interval contains both positive and negative numbers, we can not say that one region is more interesting than the other.Because the interval contains only negative numbers, we can say that region II is more interesting than region I. Because the interval contains only positive numbers, we can say that region I is more interesting than region II.We can not make any conclusions using this confidence interval.
(d) Which distribution (standard normal or Student's t) did you use? Why?
Student's t was used because σ1 and σ2 are unknown.Student's t was used because σ1 and σ2 are known. Standard normal was used because σ1 and σ2 are known.Standard normal was used because σ1 and σ2 are unknown.
x1 =average(Array) =747.5
s1 =stdev(array) =170.4
|Point estimate of differnce =x1-x2 =||8.563|
|for 80 % CI & 11 df value of t=||1.363||from excel: t.inv(0.9,11)|
|margin of error E=t*std error =||98.596|
|lower bound=mean difference-E =||-90.0|
|Upper bound=mean differnce +E =||107.2|
Because the interval contains both positive and negative
numbers, we can not say that one region is more interesting than
Student's t was used because σ1 and σ2 are unknown.
Get Answers For Free
Most questions answered within 1 hours.