12.24 Perceptions of social media. It is estimated that more than 90% of North American students use social media. This has prompted much research on the mental health impacts of these technologies. In one study, researchers investigated how mental health workers perceive the association between social media and mental disorders. A sample of psychiatrists from Canada completed a questionnaire, from which a perception score was obtained (a higher score indicating a stronger perceived association). The following ANOVA table summarizes a comparison of these scores across three age groups (generations).
Source 
DF 
SS 
MS 
F 
Age 
2 
137.78 
68.89 
0.45 
Error 
45 
6899.54 
153.32 

Total 
47 
7037.32 
(a) How many psychiatrists completed the questionnaire?
(b) What is the estimated common standard deviation?
(c) What is the Pvalue? Make sure to specify the degrees of freedom of the Fstatistic.
(d) State your conclusion using the Pvalue from part (c) and a 5% significance level.
(a) How many psychiatrists completed the questionnaire?
n=47+1=48
48 psychiatrists completed the questionnaire?
Solutionb:
In ANOVA estimated common stddev=the square root of the mean square error
=sqrt(153.32)
=12.38225
Solutionc:
(c) What is the Pvalue? Make sure to specify the degrees of freedom of the Fstatistic.
degrees of feedom of numerator=2
degrees of freedom of denominator=45
=F.INV(0.45;2;45)
=0.640466
p=0.640466
p>0.05
Do not reject Ho.
Accept H0.
(d) State your conclusion using the Pvalue from part (c) and a 5% significance level.
p>0.05
Do not reject Ho
Acept H0
There is no suffcient statistical evidence at 5% level of significance to conclude that
there is association between social media and mental disorders.
means there is no association between social media and mental disordersa
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