A physical education teacher uses a nonequivalent pretest-posttest experimental control group design to test the effectiveness of a new exercise routine on student flexibility with four classes of tenth graders. What are the threats and justifications to internal and external validity?
For many true experimental designs, pretest-posttest designs are the preferred method to compare participant groups and measure the degree of change occurring as a result of treatments or interventions.
Internal validity refers specifically to whether an experimental treatment/condition makes a difference or not, and whether there is sufficient evidence to support the claim.
External validity refers to the generalizability of the treatment/condition outcomes.
The factors of internal validity -
History, Maturation, Testing, Instrumentation, Statistical regression, Selection of subjects, Experimental mortality, Selection-maturation interaction,
Factors of external validity-
Reactive or interaction effect of testing, Interaction effects of selection biases and the experimental variable, Reactive effects of experimental arrangements, Multiple treatment interference
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