Question

A 2011 article in the British Medical Journal attempts to elucdiate Bayes' Rule for the medical profession. It's well worth reading and has some illuminating graphics. In this exercise you will confirm a result stated in the article. Useful terminology: The sensitivity of a test for a medical condition is the proportion of correctly diagnosed patients among those who have the condition. The specificity of the test is the proportion of correctly diagnosed patients among those who do not have the condition. Read those definitions a couple of times and note that a good test should have high values of both sensitivity and specificity. In the section Special Cases, the authors consider a 45-year-old woman who has a 1% chance of getting breast cancer in the subsequent five years. The article says, "The sensitivity of routine screening mammography ranges from 71% to 96% and the specificity ranges from 94% to 97%. Using values of 80% for sensitivity and 96% for specificity, a positive test increases the probability to 17%." For this problem, show your work in finding each probability and box the final decimal answer.

Find the following:

**b)** Find all of the following; percents are fine
too:

(i) the chance that the woman won't get breast cancer in the subsequent five years

(ii) the chance that the woman won't get breast cancer in the subsequent five years, if her test result is negative

(iii) the chance that the woman won't get breast cancer in the subsequent five years, if her test result is positive

(iv) the chance that the woman's test result is negative

Answer #1

A 2011 article in the British Medical Journal attempts to
elucdiate Bayes' Rule for the medical profession. It's well worth
reading and has some illuminating graphics. In this exercise you
will confirm a result stated in the article. Useful terminology:
The sensitivity of a test for a medical condition is the proportion
of correctly diagnosed patients among those who have the condition.
The specificity of the test is the proportion of correctly
diagnosed patients among those who do not have...

Suppose that a screening test for breast cancer has 95%
sensitivity and 90% specificity. Assume 1% of the population being
screened truly has breast cancer.
a. If you really do have breast cancer, what is the probability
that the test says you do?
b. If you really do not have breast cancer, what is the
probability that the test says you do?
c. The screening test is applied to a total of 15 people; 5 who
really do have cancer...

The sensitivity of a medical test refers to the test’s ability
to correctly detect ill patients who have the condition.
Mathematically, sensitivity is equivalent to the probability that
the test indicates a patient is ill given that the patient is ill.
The specificity of a medical test refers to the test’s ability to
correctly detect that a healthy patient does not have the
condition. Mathematically, specificity is equivalent to the
probability that the test indicates the patient is healthy given...

Question 1.
The main purpose of screening is to identify symptomatic disease
using tests, exams, or other procedures.
True
False
Question 2.
The detectable pre-clinical phase of a disease starts when the
disease can be identified by a screening test and ends when the
disease produces symptoms.
True
False
Question 3
.Diseases that are appropriate for screening…
a.
Have serious consequences
b.
Have a treatment that is more effective at an earlier stage
c.
Have a detectable preclinical phase that...

Suppose that a medical test run on 372 people resulted in 38
positive results. Of those, 22 people were eventually confirmed to
have the illness. Among the people who tested negative, 3 were
eventually diagnosed through other means, and the rest were
healthy. Find the sensitivity of the test, the specificity of the
test, and the positive and negative predictive values. The positive
predictive value is the probability that a person is ill given that
they tested positive, and the...

MATH220 Lab04 Due Date: See ACE Excel File: Lab2204-182.xlsx 1
Question 1: (by hand) A retail establishment accepts either the
American Express card or the VISA credit card. A total of 30% of
its customers carry an American Express card, 70% carry a VISA
card, and 20% carry both. a) Find the probability that a randomly
selected customer carries at least one of the two credit cards. i)
Draw a Venn diagram and shade the region corresponding to at least...

A. J. is a 20-year-old Caucasian female who visited her
gynecologist complaining of abdominal pain, pelvic pain, and pain
in the small of her back, which had begun to worsen. She also felt
bloated and was having frequent problems with indigestion and gas.
In addition, she was tired all the time and rarely went to the gym
anymore.
A. J.'s medical history showed her to be a healthy and athletic
female. She admitted to drinking occasionally at social events but...

Week 11 NUS 213 Health Assessment Bridge Prostate Cancer
Please review the following sections
Identify:
3 things you did not know
2 things that are most important in educating a client
1 thing you would like to know more about
American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer
Early Detection
The American Cancer Society (ACS) recommends that men have a
chance to make an informed decision with their health care provider
about whether to be screened for prostate cancer. The decision...

Assignment: What are the main arguments in the
article?
Please answer within 5 hours. It is extremely
urgent!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BIOETHICS.
Bioethics as a field is relatively new, emerging only in the
late 1960s, though many of the questions it addresses are as old as
medicine itself. When Hippocrates wrote his now famous dictum
Primum non nocere (First, do no harm), he was grappling
with one of the core issues still facing human medicine, namely,
the role and duty of the...

What topics are covered in the following
article?
Please answer within 5 hours. It is extremely
urgent!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BIOETHICS.
Bioethics as a field is relatively new, emerging only in the
late 1960s, though many of the questions it addresses are as old as
medicine itself. When Hippocrates wrote his now famous dictum
Primum non nocere (First, do no harm), he was grappling
with one of the core issues still facing human medicine, namely,
the role and duty of the physician....

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