Socially conscious investors screen out stocks of alcohol and tobacco makers, firms with poor environmental records, and companies with poor labor practices. Some examples of "good," socially conscious companies are Johnson and Johnson, Dell Computers, Bank of America, and Home Depot. The question is, are such stocks overpriced? One measure of value is the P/E, or pricetoearnings ratio. High P/E ratios may indicate a stock is overpriced. For the S&P Stock Index of all major stocks, the mean P/E ratio is μ = 19.4. A random sample of 36 "socially conscious" stocks gave a P/E ratio sample mean of x = 17.8, with sample standard deviation s = 5.6. Does this indicate that the mean P/E ratio of all socially conscious stocks is different (either way) from the mean P/E ratio of the S&P Stock Index? Use α = 0.05.
(a) What is the level of significance?
State the null and alternate hypotheses.
H_{0}: μ = 19.4; H_{1}: μ < 19.4
H_{0}: μ = 19.4; H_{1}: μ ≠ 19.4
H_{0}: μ > 19.4; H_{1}: μ = 19.4
H_{0}: μ = 19.4; H_{1}: μ > 19.4
H_{0}: μ ≠ 19.4; H_{1}: μ = 19.4
(b) What sampling distribution will you use? Explain the rationale
for your choice of sampling distribution.
The standard normal, since the sample size is large and σ is known.
The Student's t, since the sample size is large and σ is unknown.
The Student's t, since the sample size is large and σ is known.
The standard normal, since the sample size is large and σ is unknown.
What is the value of the sample test statistic? (Round your answer
to three decimal places.)
(c) Estimate the Pvalue.
Pvalue > 0.250
.100 < Pvalue < 0.250
0.050 < Pvalue < 0.100
.010 < Pvalue < 0.050
Pvalue < 0.010
Sketch the sampling distribution
and show the area corresponding to the Pvalue.

(d) Based on your answers in parts (a) to (c), will you reject or
fail to reject the null hypothesis? Are the data statistically
significant at level α?
At the α = 0.05 level, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are statistically significant.
At the α = 0.05 level, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are not statistically significant.
At the α = 0.05 level, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are statistically significant.
At the α = 0.05 level, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are not statistically significant.
(e) Interpret your conclusion in the context of the
application.
There is sufficient evidence at the 0.05 level to conclude that the mean P/E ratio of all socially conscious stocks differs from the mean P/E ratio of the S&P Stock Index
There is insufficient evidence at the 0.05 level to conclude that the mean P/E ratio of all socially conscious stocks differs from the mean P/E ratio of the S&P Stock Index.
a)
0.05 is alpha
H0: μ = 19.4; H1: μ ≠ 19.4
b)
The Student's t, since the sample size is large and σ is unknown.
Test statistic,
t = (xbar  mu)/(s/sqrt(n))
t = (17.8  19.4)/(5.6/sqrt(36))
t = 1.714
c)
Pvalue Approach
Pvalue = 0.0954
0.050 < Pvalue < 0.100
d)
At the α = 0.05 level, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are not statistically significant.
e)
There is insufficient evidence at the 0.05 level to conclude that the mean P/E ratio of all socially conscious stocks differs from the mean P/E ratio of the S&P Stock Index.
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