A paper described a survey of 495 undergraduate students at a
state university in the southwestern region of the United States.
Each student in the sample was classified according to class
standing (freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior) and body art
category (body piercings only, tattoos only, both tattoos and body
piercings, no body art).
Use the data in the accompanying table to determine if there is
evidence that there is an association between class standing and
response to the body art question. Assume that it is reasonable to
regard the sample of students as representative of the students at
this university. Use
α = 0.01.
Body Piercings Only 
Tattoos Only 
Both
Body Piercing and Tattoos 
No Body Art 


Freshman  63  7  14  86 
Sophomore  45  11  10  64 
Junior  20  9  7  43 
Senior  21  17  23  55 
Calculate the test statistic. (Round your answer to two decimal
places.)
χ^{2} =
What is the Pvalue for the test? (Round your answer to
four decimal places.)
Pvalue =
Df = (r1)(c1) = 3*3=9
Where r=no.of rows=4 and c=no.of columns=4
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