Question

Item 1 In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample...

Item 1

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is a design methodology called rapid prototyping, which has been used successfully in software engineering. Given similarities between software design and instructional design, we argue that rapid prototyping is a viable method for instructional design, especially for computer-based instruction.

References:
Tripp, S. D., & Bichelmeyer, B. A. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy. Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 31-44.

Tripp and Bichelmeyer (1990) suggested that rapid prototyping could be an advantageous methodology for developing innovative computer-based instruction. They noted that this approach has been used successfully in software engineering; hence, rapid prototyping could also be a viable method for instructional design due to many parallels between software design and instructional design.


References:
Tripp, S. D., & Bichelmeyer, B. A. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy. Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 31-44.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 2

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The game-based laboratory was vastly different from their expectations and experiences of a typical laboratory; this might have resulted in the students being disconnected from the learning aspect of the game. However, the students' comments suggested that their discomfort with the video game was due to the fact that they did not perceive that a video game could really be educational. The game became a disruption to their traditional ways of science learning and interfered with how they perceived the learning experience. This perspective is potentially problematic as it suggests that pedagogical disruptions such as video games that are designed to be powerful learning tools simply may not work for all students.

References:
Anderson, J. L., & Barnett, M. (2013). Learning Physics with Digital Game Simulations in Middle School Science. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 1-13.

Since a game-based laboratory provides a virtual environment with different experiences than in a real lab, students may fail to connect these virtual experiences to real lab experiences. Student and teacher beliefs that games are entertainment tools, not educational tools, may minimize the potential of video games intended to help students learn science.

References:
Anderson, J. L., & Barnett, M. (2013). Learning Physics with Digital Game Simulations in Middle School Science. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 1-13.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 3

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Memory is given a prominent role in the learning process. Learning results when information is stored in memory in an organized, meaningful manner. Teachers/designers are responsible for assisting learners in organizing that information in some optimal way. Designers use techniques such as advance organizers, analogies, hierarchical relationships, and matrices to help learners relate new information to prior knowledge. Forgetting is the inability to retrieve information from memory because of interference, memory loss, or missing or inadequate cues needed to access information.

References:
Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-71.

Memory takes an important role in the process of learning. Learning occurs when information is integrated into student memory in a structured and meaningful way. Teachers can help students learn by arranging that information in useful ways. Advance organizers could be used to assist learners to connect existing knowledge to new knowledge.

References:
Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-71.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 4

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is a desperate need for theorists and researchers to generate and refine a new breed of learning-focused instructional design theories that help educators and trainers to meet those needs, (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity). The health of instructional-design theory also depends on its ability to involve stakeholders in the design process.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

We "need theorists and researchers to generate and refine learning-focused instructional design theories...." Such theories will "help educators and trainers to meet those needs ... that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity."

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 5

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version (written in 2002)

Merck, in fact, epitomizes the ideological nature--the pragmatic idealism--of highly visionary companies. Our research showed that a fundamental element in the "ticking clock" of a visionary company is a core ideology--core values and a sense of purpose beyond just making money--that guides and inspires people throughout the organization and remains relatively fixed for long periods of time.

References:
Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (2002). Built to last: Successful habits of visionary companies. New York, NY: Harper Paperbacks.

Merck is one of world's biggest pharmaceutical companies. It originated in Germany late in the seventeenth century with operations in the United States starting in the late nineteenth century. As a business, Merck pursues profitable ventures; however, they have established an impressive track record of charitable giving with hundreds of millions in donations.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 6

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The lack of specific technology knowledge and skills, technology-supported pedagogical knowledge and skills, and technology-related-classroom management knowledge and skills has been identified as a major barrier to technology integration. Lack of specific technology knowledge and skills is one of the common reasons given by teachers for not using technology.

References:
Hew, K. F., & Brush, T. (2007). Integrating technology into K-12 teaching and learning: Current knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research. Educational Technology
Research and Development, 55, 223-252.

There are many factors that can affect technology integration in schools. Hew and Brush (2007) state that the main factors to technology integration are the lack of specific technology knowledge and skills, technology-supported pedagogical knowledge and skills, and technology-related-classroom management knowledge and skills.

References:
Hew, K. F., & Brush, T. (2007). Integrating technology into K-12 teaching and learning: Current knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research. Educational Technology Research and Development, 55, 223-252.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 7

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The philosophical position known as constructivismviews knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner, is a human construction.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Does knowledge exist outside of, or separate from, the individual who knows? Constructivists hold that human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner, is a human construction (Gredler, 2001).



References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 8

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is a desperate need for theorists and researchers to generate and refine a new breed of learning-focused instructional design theories that help educators and trainers to meet those needs, (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity). The health of instructional-design theory also depends on its ability to involve stakeholders in the design process.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Reigeluth (1999) maintains that we "need theorists and researchers to generate and refine learning-focused instructional design theories...." Such theories will "help educators and trainers to meet those needs (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity)" (p. 27).



References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 9

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version (written in 2002)

The technological tools available today for creating computer-based learning materials are incredibly more powerful than those introduced just a few years ago. We can make our own movies with camcorders in our homes; we can publish our own books. Soon teachers and students will be able to use computer-video technology to produce their own learning materials. All it takes is time, know-how, and some funds.

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Computers are so powerful that K-12 educators and students are now able to produce their own multimedia and Web-based learning materials. They just need to take the time required to learn to use the authoring tools and related technologies such as digital cameras and camcorders.



References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 10

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is a desperate need for theorists and researchers to generate and refine a new breed of learning-focused instructional design theories that help educators and trainers to meet those needs, (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity). The health of instructional-design theory also depends on its ability to involve stakeholders in the design process.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

We need theorists and researchers to generate and refine learning-focused instructional design theories. Such theories will help educators and trainers to meet needs that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity. Instructional-design theory must involve stakeholders in the design process.


References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Homework Answers

Answer #1

1. This is not plagiarism. The authors have been cited correctly and the original material is paraphrased.

2. This is not plagiarism. The writer mentions his/her own view and does not borrow specific ideas from the original material but cites them still.

3. This is paraphrasing plagiarism. The words have been changed from the original material but the authors have not been cited correctly.

4. This is word for word plagiarism. The material has been copied exactly from the original source but the authors have not been cited correctly.

Please post the other questions separately as we are supposed to answer just one question or four sub parts of a question.

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