Question

9. Which of the following is not true about the virtues in Aristotle’s ethics? (a) They...

9. Which of the following is not true about the virtues in Aristotle’s ethics?

(a) They are states of character.

(b) The virtuous person experiences pleasure when doing virtuous actions.

(c) They are acquired via divine commands.

(d) They allow our characteristic activities to be performed well.

(e) They require our sentiment as well as our intellect.

                                                                                               

10. Which of the following best captures the conclusion of Nagel’s argument in “What Is It Like to be a Bat?”

(a) Physical theory cannot describe facts about what-it’s-like to be conscious.

(b) It is possible for us to imagine what it is like to be a bat.

(c) Mary learns something new when she leaves her black and white room.

(d) Bats are capable of feeling pain, even though their brains are very different.

(e) The subjective character of experience can be fully captured by physical theory.

                                                                                                           

11. What is the problem of personal identity?

(a) What determines a person’s memories and personality?  

(b) What is the relationship between the mind and body?

(c) Are people ever morally responsible for their actions?

(d) What makes someone the same person over time?

(e) Can we imagine what it is like to be other people?

                                                                                                           

12. Which of the following best captures Locke’s criterion of personal identity?

(a) A later person is identical to an earlier person if they have all the same atoms.

(b) A later person is identical to an earlier person if they are the same human being.

(c) A later person P2 is identical to an earlier person P1 if P2 can remember doing the things that P1 did.

(d) A later person is identical to an earlier person if they are psychologically continuous and no branching has taken place.

(e) A later person is identical to an earlier person if they have the same body.

                                                                                                           

13. According to Locke, what happens in the prince and cobbler example?

(a) They switch bodies and the prince appears in the body of the cobbler.

(b) The prince and cobbler both go out of existence.

(c) The prince and cobbler both become mentally deranged.

(d) The prince divides into two different people.

(e) The prince remains the same person but with all new memories.

                                                                                                           

14. Which of the following would Derek Parfit not accept?

(a) Personal identity does not matter in some cases.

(b) Psychological features are still important in determining personal identity.

(c) A person who divides is identical to both of the resulting people.

(d) Psychological connectedness is important for thinking about survival.

(e) A person who divides survives as the two resulting people.

                                                                                                           

15. According to the first version of Bernard Williams’s experiment

(a) The A-body person is B and the B-body person is A.

(b) The A-body person is A and the B-body person is B.

(c) Both A and B have gone through brain-splitting.

(d) Personal identity is determined by psychological continuity.

(e) Neither A nor B survives the experiment.

                                                                                                           

16. Which of the following would a hard determinist accept?

(a) The principle of alternate possibilities is false.

(b) Not every human choice or action is an event.

(c) Determinism is compatible with the thesis of free will.

(d) No one ever acts freely and no one is ever morally responsible for their actions.

(e) Free actions are caused by agents, not by events.

                                                                       

17. Which of the following best summarizes Harry Frankfurt’s view on the relationship between moral responsibility and freedom?

(a) If S was determined to do A, then S is not morally responsible for A.

(b) If S is morally responsible for doing A, then S acted freely in doing A.

(c) If S’s action was random then S is not morally responsible for that action.

(d) You can be morally responsible for an action even if you didn’t act freely.

(e) If S is morally responsible for doing A, then S can be praised or blamed for doing A.

18. According to A. J. Ayer…

(a) Whether an action is free depends on how it was caused.

(b) Moral responsibility does not require alternate possibilities.

(c) If determinism is true then no one ever acts freely.

(d) If people sometimes act freely then some actions are not causally necessitated by prior events.

(e) There are two kinds of causation: event causation and agent causation.

                                                                                                           

19. Which of the following would A. J. Ayer accept?

(a) Having explanatory causes means not free.

(b) Moral responsibility is incompatible with determinism.

(c) A kleptomaniac acts freely.

(d) The person at gunpoint can still act freely because he can always choose to fight back.

(e) It is constraint, but not causality in general, that is in conflict with freedom.

20. According to Roderick Chisholm’s augment in “Human Freedom and the Self”…

(a) In order to be morally responsible for an action the action must not have been caused by anything.

(b) All actions are either caused by previous events or not caused at all.

(c) If an agent is morally responsible for an action then the agent is the ultimate cause of that action.

(d) All causes are events.

(e) Freedom conflicts with compulsion and constraint, not with causality.

                                                                                                           

21. Why does Roderick Chisholm think that responsibility is incompatible with an indeterministic view of human action? ?

(a) Because responsibility requires the truth of determinism.

(b) Because no one can be responsible for an uncaused, totally random and unpredictable actions.

(c) Because the brain does not function indeterministically.

(d) Because any sort of causation is incompatible with responsibility.

(e) Because we do not bring a lunatic to trial.                                 

                                                                                                            

22. What is the principle of alternate possibilities?

(a) Every time someone acts they could have done otherwise.

(b) No one is ever morally responsible for their actions.

(c) If determinism is true then it’s never the case that we could have done otherwise.

(d) An agent is morally responsible for a morally bad action only if they could have done otherwise.

(e) A person is morally responsible for an action only if they could have done otherwise.

                                                                                                             

23. In Harry Frankfurt's case involving Jones4, what role does Black play?

(a) Coercer

(b) Counterfactual intervener

(c) Actual threat

(d) Brain manipulator

(e) Deceiver

Homework Answers

Answer #1

Aristotle's virtue ethics referred to one's character as the most important element in ethical thinking. Aristotle emphasized on an individual's real intention and character as a good virtue. The consequences or the act itself did not matter. It is the character or the intention that matter the most. All of the above statements are true except 'they allow our characteristic activities to be performed well'. According to Aristotle, virtue require our sentiment as well as our intellect, the virtuous person experiences pleasure when doing virtuous actions, they are acquired via divine commands.

Thus, the correct answer is option, D.

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