Question

Item 1 In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample...

Item 1

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

I accept the point that whenever learning occurs, some medium or mix of media must be present to deliver instruction. However, if learning occurs as a result of exposure to any media, the learning is caused by the instructional method embedded in the media presentation. Method is the inclusion of one of a number of possible representations of a cognitive process or strategy that is necessary for learning but which students cannot or will not provide for themselves.

References:
Clark, R. E. (1994). Media will never influence learning.  Educational technology research and development, 42(2), 21-29.

Media do not influence learning. Learning takes place because of the instructional methods represented in the medium which are used, rather than medium itself. It is the instructional methods which influence learning.

References:
Clark, R. E. (1994). Media will never influence learning.  Educational technology research and development, 42(2), 21-29.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 2

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The philosophical position known as constructivism views knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner, is a human construction.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

The philosophical position known as constructivism views knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge is a human construction.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 3

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

In examining the history of the visionary companies, we were struck by how often they made some of their best moves not by detailed strategic planning, but rather by experimentation, trial and error, opportunism, and--quite literally--accident. What looks in hindsight like a brilliant strategy was often the residual result of opportunistic experimentation and "purposeful accidents."

References:
Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (2002). Built to last: Successful habits of visionary companies. New York, NY: Harper Paperbacks.

When I look back on the decisions I've made, it's clear that I made some of my best choices not through a thorough analytical investigation of my options, but instead by trial and error and, often, simply by accident. The somewhat random aspect of my success or failure is, at the same time, both encouraging and scary.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 4

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is a design methodology called rapid prototyping, which has been used successfully in software engineering. Given similarities between software design and instructional design, we argue that rapid prototyping is a viable method for instructional design, especially for computer-based instruction.

References:
Tripp, S. D., & Bichelmeyer, B. A. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy. Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 31-44.

Rapid prototyping could be an advantageous methodology for developing innovative computer-based instruction (Tripp & Bichelmeyer, 1990).

References:
Tripp, S. D., & Bichelmeyer, B. A. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy. Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 31-44.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 5

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

A communication channel is the means by which messages get from one individual to another. The nature of the information-exchange relationship between a pair of individuals determines the conditions under which a source will or will not transmit the innovation to the receiver and the effect of such a transfer.

References:
Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster.

Rogers places great importance on the sharing of information about an innovation. He defines a communication channel as "the means by which messages get from one individual to another" (p. 18). He describes two general media channels of communication: mass media and interpersonal; and two scopes of channels: localite and cosmopolite.

References:
Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 6

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The theory we have constructed originates with the three phases of learning described above. We have organize and adapted the features of simulations to provide the learner with the most effective and efficient presentations in order to achieve successful acquisition, application and assessment. Our general model describes five aspects of simulations and provides prescriptions for the implementation of each. It applies to all simulations for teaching principles or procedures. Specific conditions or types of simulations require their own characteristic prescriptions that are described G3 variations on the general model.

  

References:

Reigeluth, C., & Schwartz, E. (1989). An instructional theory for the design of computer-based simulations. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 16(1), 1-10.

Another ID theory that could be useful in the design of educational games is a model presented by Reigeluth and Schwartz (1989) intended for designing instruction in educational simulations. This model provides a more specific approach to designing instruction. Reigeluth and Schwartz propose three phases of the learning process which educational simulations should activate. They are: (1) acquisition of basic knowledge, (2) application of knowledge to the full range of scenarios, and (3) assessment of what has been learned. Their model for designing educational simulations is comprised of heuristics intended to inform the designer in following a set of prescriptions.

References:

Reigeluth, C., & Schwartz, E. (1989). An instructional theory for the design of computer-based simulations. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 16(1), 1-10.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 7

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The study of learning derives from essentially two sources. Because learning involves the acquisition of knowledge, the first concerns the nature of knowledge and how we come to know things.... The second source in which modern learning theory is rooted concerns the nature and representation of mental life.

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

The study of learning derives from essentially two sources. The first concerns the nature of knowledge and how we come to know things. The second source concerns the nature and representation of mental life.



References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 8

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The goal of instruction for the behaviorist is to elicit the desired response from the learner who is presented with a target stimulus. To accomplish this, the learner must know how to execute the proper response, as well as the conditions under which that response should be made. Therefore, instruction is structured around the presentation of the target stimulus and the provision of opportunities for the learner to practice making the proper response.

References:
Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-71.

According to behaviorism, instruction should provide necessary stimulus in order for learners to produce desired response. It is important that the learner must know how to execute the proper response under the required conditions in order to produce the desired response (Ertmer & Newby, 1993). Instruction should provide learner with opportunities that the learner practice to elicit the desired outcome.

References:
Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-71.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 9

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The game-based laboratory was vastly different from their expectations and experiences of a typical laboratory; this might have resulted in the students being disconnected from the learning aspect of the game.  However, the students' comments suggested that their discomfort with the video game was due to the fact that they did not perceive that a video game could really be educational. The game became a disruption to their traditional ways of science learning and interfered with how they perceived the learning experience. This perspective is potentially problematic as it suggests that pedagogical disruptions such as video games that are designed to be powerful learning tools simply may not work for all students.

References:
Anderson, J. L., & Barnett, M. (2013). Learning Physics with Digital Game Simulations in Middle School Science. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 1-13.

Since a game-based laboratory provides a virtual environment with different experiences than in a real lab, students may fail to connect these virtual experiences to real lab experiences. Student and teacher beliefs that games are entertainment tools, not educational tools, may minimize the potential of video games intended to help students learn science.

References:
Anderson, J. L., & Barnett, M. (2013). Learning Physics with Digital Game Simulations in Middle School Science. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 1-13.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 10

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

It is helpful to think in terms of two basic kinds of change: piecemeal and systemic. Piecemeal change leaves the structure of a system unchanged. It often involves finding better ways to meet the same needs, such as using an analogy to help your students learn the science concepts you taught in an otherwise similar manner last year. In contrast, systemic change entails modifying the structure of a system, usually in response to new needs.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional-design theory and how is it changing? Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. 2, pp. 5-29). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Reiguleth (1999) mentions two different kinds of change: Piecemeal and Systemic change. Systemic change entails modifying the structure of a system, in order to meet new needs. In contrast, piecemeal change leaves the structure of a system unchanged. For example, new innovations instead of traditional methods could be used to engage students in learning.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

Word-for-Word plagiarism

Paraphrasing plagiarism

This is not plagiarism

Homework Answers

Answer #1

Item 1: Paraphrasing plagiarism

Reason: The sentences from the original media source are simply re-framed. It means the same as the original source.

Item 2: Word-for-Word plagiarism

Reason: The exact material from the source is copied.

Item 3: This is not plagiarism

Reason: The idea or the content is not copied in any way.

Item 4: This is not plagiarism

Reason: The idea or the content is not copied in any way.

Item 5: Word-for-Word plagiarism
Reason: The exact material from the source is copied.

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