Which one of the following psychologists is most likely to agree
with the idea that there are "multiple intelligences" that are
independent and distinct?
A) Charles Spearman
B) Claude Steele
C) Howard Gardner
D) Sue Savage-Rumbaugh
Kyle is studying how language abilities change throughout childhood, and Kelly is studying cognitive changes in late adulthood. Both Kyle and Kelly are conducting studies in which area of psychology?
A) clinical psychology
B) humanistic psychology
D) developmental psychology
REM sleep is also called _____ sleep.
When he is asleep, Doug's airway becomes narrowed or blocked,
causing very shallow breathing and repeated pauses in breathing.
This happens several times a night and disrupts his sleep. Doug
B) obstructive sleep apnea.
Robert Sternberg believes:
A) that successful intelligence involves three distinct mental abilities.
B) that most studies of animal cognition are seriously flawed.
C) that there is one general intelligence, or g factor.
D) that there are eight distinct and independent factors involved in intelligence.
Most psychoneuroimmunologists are likely to share the view
A) the immune system works completely independently of other body systems.
B) there are interconnections among psychological processes, nervous and endocrine system functions, and the immune system.
C) the endocrine system works completely independently of other body systems.
D) there are no direct connections between the brain and the immune system, only indirect connections.
Kelley and Madison are identical twins who were separated at
birth and raised in different families. In a twin study,
similarities in their personality traits would be judged to be due
to _____, and differences in their personality traits would be
considered to be due to _____.
A) genetic influences; environmental influences
B) environmental influences; genetic influences
C) emergenic influences; heritability of traits
D) heritability of traits; emergenic influences
Two self-report inventories that were originally designed to
assess the personality characteristics of normal populations are
A) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).
B) California Personality Inventory (CPI) and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF).
C) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and the California Personality Inventory (CPI).
D) Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).
Which of the following statements reflects Freud's view of the superego?
A) It is the moralistic and self-evaluative component of personality.
B) It is "a cauldron of seething excitement" that wants immediate gratification of instinctual drives and urges.
C) It is the component of personality that operates on the reality principle.
D) It is the source of the life instinct and death instinct.
Some teratogens, such as cocaine, cigarette smoke, or alcohol,
can damage the developing fetus:
A) only during the germinal period.
B) only during the fetal period.
C) at any stage before birth.
D) during the germinal period and the fetal period but not the embryonic period.
Sleepsex is also called:
C) sleep terror.
Teresa is a quiet child who has never been very active. She is
good-natured and calm as long as her circumstances are familiar,
but she is easily upset by changes in her environment. It takes her
a long time to adapt to new food, new people, or new surroundings.
Teresa's temperament would probably be categorized as:
D) below average.
Faced with the financial and personal problems associated with
returning to school as an adult student, Amanda estimated how much
she would need to live on, how much time she could devote to
working, and how much study time she would need to succeed
academically. Amanda is using a(n) _____ coping strategy called
A) problem-focused; denial
B) emotion-focused; escape–avoidance
C) problem-focused; planful problem solving
D) emotion-focused; confrontive coping
_____ was the primary proponent of the notion that general
intelligence, also referred to as the g factor, was the variable
responsible for overall performance on mental ability tests.
A) Alfred Binet
B) David Wechsler
C) Charles Spearman
D) Lewis Terman
Because the beginnings of his own sexual attraction to some of
the girls in his seventh-grade class were so anxiety-provoking to
Jeff, he often found himself teasing the girls to whom he was most
attracted. Jeff's behavior is best explained by which of the
following ego defense mechanisms?
C) reaction formation
When LaToya got her new computer, she carefully followed the
steps described in the manual, and by the end of the evening, her
new computer was up and running. LaToya used:
A) an algorithm.
B) a heuristic.
D) trial and error.
The process of coming to a conclusion or making a judgment
without conscious awareness of the thought processes involved is
A) functional fixedness.
B) a mental set.
D) prototypical thinking.
A strategy in which the likelihood of an event is estimated on
the basis of how easily we can remember other instances of the
event is called the:
A) availability heuristic.
B) availability algorithm.
C) representativeness heuristic.
D) representativeness algorithm.
Pat describes Terry as "very masculine" because Terry is confident, active, and physically strong. Pat is referring to Terry's:
B) gender role.
C) sexual orientation.
D) gender schema.
"What are the most basic units or structures of conscious
thought?" This is a question that would MOST likely be of interest
to a follower of:
A strategy in which the likelihood of an event is estimated by
comparing how similar it is to the typical prototype of the event
is a definition of:
A) the availability heuristic.
B) the confirmation bias.
C) the representativeness heuristic.
D) mental set.
10-year-old Sydney's IQ score on the Stanford-Binet intelligence
test was 130. It is likely that her mental age is:
C) 6 .
Dr. Woods is studying the degree to which primates seem to
display logic and insight in figuring out a variety of puzzles and
other simple problems. Dr. Woods is MOST likely a(n) _____
A representative sample is a:
A) group of participants that closely parallels the larger group to be studied on relevant characteristics, such as age, sex, race, marital status, and educational level.
B) sample questionnaire that represents the most likely set of survey responses.
C) small group of volunteers who try to predict the survey results.
D) list of all the possible questions that might be represented on the final survey.
Tranquilizers are drugs that are:
A) chemically similar to barbiturates but produce much more powerful effects.
B) depressants that relieve anxiety.
C) stimulants such as OxyContin and oxycodone.
D) inhaled to produce changes in consciousness.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI):
A) combines the ability to produce a detailed image of the brain's structures with the capacity to track the brain's activity and functioning.
B) involves injecting the participant with a radioactively tagged compound, such as glucose, that is tracked as it is used in different brain regions.
C) is limited because the participant cannot be repeatedly scanned.
D) produces brain images that are not as sharp as and are much less detailed than those produced by PET scans.
The pattern of brain structure differences found in brain
imaging studies of the Big Five personality traits have led
researchers to conclude that _____ is related to structural
differences in brain systems related to sensitivity to threat and
When Jennifer lived in the Eastern European country of Slakia
for a year, she found it very difficult to adapt to the strange
customs and diet of the Slakian culture. Robert Sternberg might
suggest that Jennifer is low in _____ intelligence.
In contrast to Freud, psychoanalyst Karen Horney emphasized the importance of _____ in personality development.
A) sexual conflicts during the adolescent years
B) human relationships
C) striving for superiority
D) unconditional love and acceptance
Which approach to personality focuses primarily on describing individual differences?
A) the trait perspective
B) the psychoanalytic perspective
C) the humanistic perspective
D) the social cognitive perspective
When Konya emigrated to the United States he found it very difficult to adapt to the new culture. Konya probably experienced:
A) the stress contagion effect.
B) acculturative stress.
C) separation-integration stress.
D) the fight-or-flight response.
According to research by Claude Steele and other psychologists,
how does stereotype threat tend to impair performance?
A) Irrelevant mental images and concepts come to mind, which interfere with insight, intuition, and creativity.
B) Mental sets are produced, which interferes with effective problem solving and performance.
C) Functional fixedness is experienced, which interferes with flexible and creative problem solving.
D) The fear that one might confirm the stereotype negatively affects the ability to carry out an action.
According to psychologists, the formal meaning of the term drug
A) the use of any drug to alter consciousness.
B) the use of any illegal drug.
C) recurrent substance use that involves impaired control, disruption of social, occupational, and interperpersonal functioning, and the development of craving, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms.
D) a pattern of recurrent drug use that results in physical addiction to an illegal drug.
1. The correct answer is - C
Howard Gardner is the psychologist who is most likely to agree with the idea that there are "multiple intelligences" that are independent and distinct.
2. The correct answer is - D
Kyle is studying how language abilities change throughout childhood, and Kelly is studying cognitive changes in late adulthood. Both Kyle and Kelly are conducting studies in the area of developmental psychology.
3. The correct answer is - A
REM sleep is also known as active sleep.
4. The correct answer is - B
When he is asleep, Doug's airway becomes narrowed or blocked, causing very shallow breathing and repeated pauses in breathing. This happens several times a night and disrupts his sleep. Doug suffers from Obstructive sleep apnea.
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