Question

1. Address the following components; * Identify the schools of thought in psychology (approaches) and examine...

1. Address the following components;

* Identify the schools of thought in psychology (approaches) and examine their main underlying assumptions.

*Examples of how approaches can be used.

2. use a minimum of three quotations

Homework Answers

Answer #1

The Major schools of thought in Psychology and their assumptions:

  • Structuralism: Wundt and Titchner

An early perspective in psychology associated with Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchner in which the focus of the study is the structure of basic elements of the mind.

  • Functionalism: William James

The focus of the study is how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play.

  • Gestalt Psychology: Max Wertheimer

An early perspective focusing on perception and sensation, particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures.

  • Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung,Erik Erikson

The theory and therapy based on the work of Freud. Being a medical doctor- a neurologist who specializes in the disorders of the nervous system. Freudian psychoanalysis, the theory based on his ideas, has been the basis of psychotherapy in the modern world. It is a process in which trained psychological professionals help a person gain insights into and change their behavior.

  • Behaviourism: John.B.Watson and Pavlov

The science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only.

  • Humanistic Psychology: Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow

This perspective grew to become important in the mid 20 century as a response to Freud's Psychoanalytical theory and Skinners Behaviourism. Its roots come from Socrates and it emphasizes an individual's inherent drive towards self-actualization, the process of realizing and expressing one's own abilities, capabilities, and creativity.

Some other approaches are :

Cognitive Psychology: It is the scientific study of mental processes like attention, memory, problem solving, creativity. It studies how people recognize their world, how they process information, and go about things in various situations.

Evolutionary Psychology: This perspective applies the principles of evolution to gain insight into the way selection pressures have influenced behavior.

Biological Approach: based on the assumption of materialism, which asserts that all behavior has a physiological basis. The primary concerns are the workings of the nervous system and the role of heredity in behavior.

All of these approaches can be used in a variety of ways. Each approach can be utilized as per the diagnosis of a patient is concerned. For example, if the patient has a behavioral problem then CBT would be effective. If a patient is having existential crises then humanistic and existential therapy will be more effective than the other ones as it will be more catered for a diagnosis to be treated properly. Another example can be of abuse and trauma where patients will benefit from the classic talking therapies under Psychodynamic theories, where repression and defense mechanism are closely looked at and understood to help a person better function in their daily life.

For people who require a more holistic view of their personal issues, they may explore with their therapists what would work best for them. There is no one approach that fits all. The rapport that a therapist makes with the patient is one of the most important parts of the relationship as it will be the baseline and foundation of the diagnosis and treatment as well. It is the responsibility of the mental health professional to follow ethical guidelines and keep in touch with research to better help the patient long term. Many treatments may not work for people as things like relapse and otehr uncontrollable external factors may disrupt the take off of a patient but it is important that the goals of the patient are defined at the beginning of the therapist-patient relationship so that it is clear when the therapy must be stopped. Each approach is unique and brings a different perspective to the table of psychology. In Gestalt therapy clients are encouraged to focus on becoming more aware of themselves, staying present, and processing things in the here and now. They are not forced into doing things and can make their own choice with the help of some guidance from their mental health professionals. For intense disorders like Schizophrenia and Bipolar disorder, biopsychology is more useful. As these disorders may be genetic and can cause lots of difficulties in a person's functioning, medications are a must to balance the neurochemistry of the patient's brain. Doing so would help balance the physical imbalances and will then give way for therapy to be added as well. It is better that patients are given therapy while on medications as it has proven to be better at treating major abnormal disorders. Even disorders of stress and anxiety will require medication to some extent as many may have panic disorders and they may experience the extremes of their negative feelings.

Systemic and Narrative Therapy and Solution-focused brief therapy come from the family of narrative therapies. They assume there is no single truth to existence and that reality is constructed through systems of human interaction and the stories we live by. There is also Person-centered therapy and Motivational Interviewing which are considered to be within the spectrum of humanistic therapies. They are client-centered and non-confrontational although Motivated Interviewing is a more directive model.CAT(Cognitive Analytic Therapy), CBT(Cognitive Behavioural Therapy),DBT( Dialectical Behavioural Therapy) are all integrative approaches. They work to help a person gain greater awareness of their cognitive processes and how they impact on behaviors in daily life. They also draw from Freud's theories to help understand early childhood experiences that cause issues later on in adult functioning. DBT and Mindfulness both incorporate existential theory to support a person in developing techniques to become more deliberate in their responses to situations.

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