Question

DIRECTIONS: This is an open book, take home examination. You may look up the answers and...

DIRECTIONS: This is an open book, take home examination. You may look up the answers and discuss them, if you wish. The Multiple Choice questions will be worth 1 point each and the essay questions will be worth 25 points each. This examination is over Chapters 6 through 9. MULTIPLE CHOICE: 1. During Piaget's concrete operational stage, children a. are more egocentric than they were during the preoperational period. b. often confuse appearances with reality. c. are unable to reverse their thinking. 01 d. are able to perform mental operations. 2. The ability to draw appropriate conclusions from facts is referred to as a. deductive reasoning. b. divergent thinking. c. performing a mental operation. d. concrete thinking. 3. Piaget's theory has been criticized because a. adolescents don't always reason at the formal operational level even though they are capable of it. b. adolescents are not able to use contrary-to-fact reasoning. c. it suggests that qualitative changes in thinking continue to occur throughout adulthood. d. it did not provide a comprehensive view of cognitive development. 4. Most thought takes place in the , according to information processing theorists. a. sensorimotor b. working memory c. long-term memory d. intelligence quotient 5. If intelligence is influenced by genes, then the IQ scores of identical twins should be a. less similar than those of fraternal twins. b. less similar than those of children and their adopted siblings. c. less similar than those of children and their biological parents. d. more similar than those of other pairs of siblings. 6. If you wanted to get a culture-fair assessment of intelligence, which of the following tests would be best to use? a. Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) b. Raven's Progressive Matrices c. Stanford-Binet d. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Ill (WISC-III) 7. Gifted children a. tend to have more emotional problems than their nongifted peers. b. often have difficulty getting along with other children. c. tend to be more mature than their nongifted peers. d. will flourish even if their talents are not nurtured by others. 8. Who is most likely to be described as having familial mental retardation? a. Sam, who has Down Syndrome and an IQ of 45 b. Stella, who suffered oxygen deprivation during birth and has an IQ of 20 c. Susan, who was born 15 weeks prematurely, has an IQ of 85, and is visually impaired d. Sunny, who has an IQ of 65 and no obvious biological or physical problems 9. Approximately 90 percent of all mentally retarded individuals are classified as mentally retarded. a. mildly b. moderately severe d. profoundly 10. Clyde is unusually energetic, has difficulty concentrating in school, and often acts without thinking. Clyde shows many of the characteristics of a. a learning disability. b. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. c. mild mental retardation. d. moderate mental retardation. Il. Compared to students in other countries, U.S. students have a. the highest math achievement scores in the world. b. the lowest math achievement scores in the world. c. substantially lower math achievement than students in the nation with the highest level of math achievement. d. math achievement scores very close to those in the nation with the highest math achievement scores 12. . children tend to be taller than children, who tend to be taller than children. a. European American; African American; Asian American b. African American; European American; Asian American c. African American; Asian American; European American d. Asian American; African American; European American 13. Gender differences in motor skills during the elementary school years are due in part to a. differences in experience. b. girls' bodies having less fat. c. girls' bodies having more muscle. d. beliefs that physical fitness is less important for boys than for girls. 14. Jessica's parents usually explain why they set specific rules, and encourage Jessica to talk with them about their rules. While they do set expectations for Jessica's behavior, they are quite affectionate, loving, and interested in what is going on in Jessica's life. Jessica's parents most closely fit the parenting style. a. authoritarian b. authoritative c. permissive d. uninvolved 15. Children withparents often have lower self-esteem and are unhappy. a. authoritarian b. authoritative c. permissive d. uninvolved 16. Punishment is most effective when a. it is administered with a delay after the behavior occurs. b. it is administered only occasionally when the misbehavior occurs. c. there is no explanation of why the child was punished. d. the child has a warm, affectionate relationship with the punisher. 17. Which of the following statements concerning birth order effects or family constellation is true? a. First-born children typically have higher scores on intelligence tests and are more likely than laterborns to go to college. b. First-born children are more innovative and popular with their peers than later-born children. c. Later-born children are more willing than first-borns to conform to parents' and adults' requests. d. Only children tend to be worse off in many ways than children with siblings 18. Child abuse occurs more often a. in countries like Sweden, where physical punishment is not socially accepted, than in countries like the United States, where physical punishment is accepted. b. when children are older rather than younger. c. when parents have low expectations for their children. d. when families are socially isolated from other relatives or neighbors. 19. Interracial friendships a. are more likely to occur when classes are large. b. are more likely to occur when classes are small. c. made in school usually extend to out-of-school settings when neighborhoods are segregated. d. are as likely to occur as same-race friendships. 20. When parents have parenting styles, their children are likely to become involved with crowds that a. uninvolved or indulgent; endorse adult standards of behavior b. authoritative; reject adult standards of behavior c. authoritarian; do not use drugs d. authoritative; endorse adult standards of behavior 21. Nate is the leader of a group of boys that call themselves the "Arrows." The boys in the group all go along with the decisions that Nate makes about what the "Arrows" are going to do. The "Arrows" have a group structure known as a. power assertion. b. a dominance hierarchy. c. a blended family. d. authoritative. 22. Bobby, a(n) child, is admired and even idolized by many of his classmates, but at the same time is detested and avoided by many of his other classmates. a. popular b. rejected c. controversial d. average 23. Who has the most advanced form of perspective-taking? a. Janda, who can step in another's shoes and view himself as others do. b. Michael, who knows that he and others can have different thoughts and feelings but often confuses the two. c. Brian, who can step out of the immediate situation to see how he and another person are viewed by a third person. d. Maria, who realizes that a third person's perspective is influenced by broader personal, social, and cultural contexts. 24. Compared to older children's descriptions, younger children's descriptions of other people are more likely to focus on traits. a. psychological b. abstract c. personality d. concrete 25. Changes in primary sex characteristics include changes in a. breasts. b. ovaries. c. the voice d. body hair 26. What are the psychological consequences of early maturation? a. Both boys and girls who mature early are likely to be more self-confident. b. Girls who mature early are likely to be more popular with peers. c. Girls who mature early are likely to associate with older adolescents. d. Early studies suggested that early maturation is harmful to boys. 27. According to what we know from research about obesity, a. obesity is almost entirely due to environmental factors. b. obesity is a result of both genetic and environmental factors. c. if obese youths lose weight, they will always regain it. d. obese youth will not be able to lose weight 28.Heather sometimes eats uncontrollably and then vomits or takes laxatives. Heather appears to have a. bulimia nervosa. b. anorexia nervosa. c. a basal metabolic rate. d. obesity. 29.Which of the following statements about causes of death during adolescence in the U.S. is true? a. Most adolescent deaths are due to disease. b. Causes of death do not differ by ethnicity during adolescence. c. Among boys, most deaths are due to natural causes or firearms. d. Among girls, most deaths are due to natural causes or accidents involving motor vehicles 30. During adolescence, a. working memory capacity is less than it will be during adulthood. b. information processing speed is faster than it was during childhood. c. increased knowledge interferes with information processing ability. d. there is unlikely to be any monitoring of the effectiveness of strategies used for a task. 31 .An adolescent who makes a decision about a moral dilemma based on what is best for her own needs is in Kohlberg's stage of moral reasoning. a. obedience orientation b. interpersonal norms c. instrumental orientation d. social system morality 32. Which of the following is not one of the tenets of Kohlberg's theory? a. The stages of moral reasoning follow an invariant sequence. b. The level of moral reasoning is associated with cognitive development. c. Moral reasoning changes qualitatively over the life span. d. Cultural factors determine the sequence of stages. 33. The Real People feature concerning the movie Schindler's List described how Oskar Schindler's moral reasoning underwent a shift from the level to the level over the course of the movie. a. preconventional; postconventional b. conventional; postconventional c. postconventional; preconventional d. preconventional; conventional 34. The highest stage of Gilligan's developmental progression of moral reasoning emphasizes a. personal moral principles. b. caring for others and oneself in all personal relationships by denouncing exploitation and violence between people. c. being preoccupied with one's own needs. d. caring for others. 35. Children who pursue their own pleasure are in Eisenberg's stage of prosocial reasoning. a. needs-oriented b. approval-focused c. hedonistic orientation d. empathic orientation 36. Teens in the and identity statuses have not explored alternative identities. a. achievement; moratorium b. diffusion; foreclosure c. diffusion; achievement d. moratorium; foreclosure 37. Which of the following is true of attaining identity? a. Once the achievement status is attained, an individual's identity remains constant throughout the lifespan. b. After an identity is attained an individual may return to the moratorium status and emerge with a modified identity. c. Most people attain an identity during early adolescence. d. Parents do not influence teens' identity status. 38. Natalie thought that there was no way anyone else could understand how upset she was when her boyfriend broke up with her. This kind of thinking is most strongly associated with which feature of adolescent thinking? a. imaginary audience b. personal fable c. illusion of invulnerability d. adolescent egocentrism 39. Achievement status is associated with parents who a. encourage discussion and recognize children's autonomy. b. set rules with little justification or explanation. c. provide children with explicit direction for their identities. d. discourage their children from experimenting with different identities. 40. Most adolescents a. admire and love their parents. b. do not rely on their parents for advice. c. do not accept many of their parents' values. d. feel unloved by their parents. 41. Which of the following is most likely to keep Shannon, a teenage girl, from becoming a teenage mother? a. having an illusion of invulnerability b. lack of access to contraceptives c. participating in a comprehensive sex education program d. .not knowing the facts of conception 42. Homosexual adolescents a. usually identify themselves as hokmosexual during mid-adolescence and publicly declare their sexual orientation at that time. b. usually identify themselves as Homosexual during mid-adolescence but wait until early adulthood to publicly reveal their sexual orientation.

Homework Answers

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