Question

1.Conclusions from the classic Kasser and Ryan study on the “dark side of the American dream”...

1.Conclusions from the classic Kasser and Ryan study on the “dark side of the American dream”

a.

only apply to affluent cultures.

b.

are specific to the United States and Canada.

c.

are limited to Western cultures.

d.

have been replicated in a variety of different cultures

2.Self-regulation and control have to do with the ________ of goal achievement.

a.

“what”

b.

“why”

c.

“how”

d.

“when”

3.Compared to other motivational concepts, such as needs, values, and motives, Karolyi argues that personal goals provide

a.

a more general framework for studying human motivation.

b.

a window to the “deeper and enduring motives of a person’s life.”

c.

a more specific “here and now” look at a “person’s on-line command center.”

d.insights into the most common and shared core of human motives

4.Goals are defined as

a.

desired states and outcomes that people expend energy trying to achieve.

b.

the basic needs and motives that underlie all human behavior.

c.

those concrete activities and tasks that we are working on right now.

d.

those desired outcomes that express a person’s unique personality, talents, and skills.

5.The goal motive explanation (why goals are pursued) for the relationship between strong financial aspirations and lower well-being is that

a.

strong financial motivations lead to a variety of personal and social conflicts that lower well-being.

b.

people with strong financial aspirations are searching for a purpose in life, but have made a poor choice.

c.

strong financial aspirations are typically adopted by people who come from impoverished backgrounds and see money as the cause and the solution to their problems.

d.

strong financial aspirations are likely to involved controlled rather than autonomous sources of motivation and research shows controlled motivations lower well-being.

6.The goal contents explanation (what goals are pursued) for the relationship between strong financial aspirations and lower well-being is that

a.

people with strong financial aspirations are shallow, superficial, and easily influenced by our “celebrity culture.”

b.

extrinsic goals are inherently less satisfying than intrinsic goals and might also interfere with the pursuit of intrinsic goals such as developing supportive social relationships.

c.

people must choose between extrinsic and intrinsic goals and materialists have made the wrong choice.

d.

strong financial aspirations inevitably lead to a stressful and frustrating life that undercuts the satisfaction that may result from financial success.

7.Corey Keyes’ “complete model of mental health” describes

a.

how the presence or absence of mental illness can be used to infer mental health.

b.

discrete categories of mental illness and mental health.

c.

a clear line of divide between mental illness and mental health.

d.

a continuum running from mental illness to flourishing.

8.Goals connect the “having” and “doing.” This means that

a.

personal goals help determine the influences that personal resources have on well-being.

b.

personal goals determine what you have and what you do.

c.

what you have determines what you do and therefore what you achieve.

d.

personal resources and personal goals are both determined by an individual’s personality

9.Your text authors note that it is important to place consideration of the specific meaning of a good life in the context of

a.

personality and genetic differences

b.

differences in values and religious orientation.

c.

different cultures and stages of lifespan development.

d.

life events and availability of resources and opportunities.

10.According to your textbook authors, what is “new” and unique about positive psychology is that it has

a.

helped clarify the relative independence of the “good” and the “bad.”

b.

shown the valuable lessons that can be learned from tragedy.

c.

shown the health and happiness benefits of a positive outlook.

d.

rejected psychology’s emphasis on the negative and replaced it with an emphasis on the positive.

11.Relationship-enhancing and distress-maintaining attributions describe two major differences in how close relationship partners

a.

respond to the distress of their partner.

b.

communicate the need to talk about a relationship problem.

c.

explain their own perceived role in improving the relationship.

d.explain the transgressions and faults of their partner.

12.The Signature Strengths Questionnaire was developed by Values in Action Project (VIA) researchers to measure 24 strengths of character. This questionnaire has been taken by over 350,000 people in 50 different countries. Analysis of character strengths profiles suggest that

a.

people in widely different cultures share a common understanding of character strengths.

b.

the meaning of character strengths varies widely across different cultures.

c.

the Signature Strengths Questionnaire contains a substantial Western value bias.

d.

gender, age, and social class have a substantial influence on people’s understanding of character strengths.

13.Kabat-Zinn describes seven qualities or attributes of mindfulness awareness that are be cultivated during mindfulness meditation. What does he mean by beginners’ mind?

a.

being aware that when you first start out you need to be patient

b.

not striving to achieve a particular result

c.

accepting who you are right now

d.being willing to see everything for the “first time”

14.In successful “minding of close relationships,” attribution involves

a.

viewing positive behaviors as internally caused and negative behaviors as externally caused.

b.

viewing negative behaviors as externally caused and positive behaviors as internally caused.

c.

special communication that enhances closeness and intimacy.

d.developing acceptance and respect.

15.In Sternberg’s triangular theory of love, different varieties of love are based on three essential ingredients. These are

a.

romance, friendship, and knowledge.

b.

love, friendship, and mutual interest.

c.

intimacy, shared interests, and mutuality.

d.intimacy, passion, and commitment.

16.

Research studies of optimism, defined and measured as explanatory style,

a.

shows a pattern of effects and outcomes that are quite similar to those shown for dispositional optimism.

b.

has found the internal-external explanatory dimension to be less predictive than the stable and global dimensions.

c.

are based on people’s explanations for negative life events only.

d.all of the above

17.One of the ways two people increase their mutual knowledge of each other is called disclosure reciprocity. This means

a.

finding common interests as a way to “see the self in the other.”

b.

reciprocating positive comments and creating an atmosphere of mutual trust.

c.

reciprocating the need to keep personal information confidential.

d.mutual affection.

d.reciprocating a personal disclosure and matching its level of intimacy.

18.Trust in a relationship is all about

a.

keeping confidences.

b.

care and concern for the other.

c.

interdependence.

19.Trust in a relationship is all about

a.

keeping confidences.

b.

care and concern for the other.

c.

interdependence.

d.mutual affection.

19.When partners shift from describing their relationship by singular pronouns (e.g., “she and I”) to plural pronouns (e.g., “we” or “us”) this contributes to feelings of

a.

caring

b.

mutuality.

c.

knowledge

d.trust.

20.Research by Carver & Scheier suggests that people who “give up” on an important life goal

a.

may be considered losers in American culture.

b.

may be avoiding the stresses and possible depression associated with hanging on to an unobtainable goal.

c.

must deal with the dilemma of giving up to soon or hanging on too long.

d. all of the above

Homework Answers

Answer #1

1. The correct answer is Option D. Conclusions from the classic Kasser and Ryan study on the “dark side of the American dream” have been replicated in different cultures.

2. The correct answer is Option B. Self-regulation and control have to do with the “how” of goal achievement.

3. The correct answer is Option C. Compared to other motivational concepts, such as needs, values, and motives, Karolyi argues that personal goals provide a more specific “here and now” look.

4. The correct answer is Option A. Goals are defined as desired states and outcomes that people expend their energy trying to achieve.

Please post the other questions separately as we are supposed to answer just one question or four sub parts of a question.

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