Learn four types of conditions: 1. Necessary condition: ask what condition must be true to guarantee...

Learn four types of conditions:

1. Necessary condition: ask what condition must be true to guarantee the conclusion? Conclusion doesn't follow unless a necessary condition is met. "Sue will give birth to a healthy baby boy." Necessary condition: Sue is pregnant. (It's not sufficient, though, because the baby might not be healthy, might not be a boy, might be premature.)

2. Sufficient condition: ask is this condition enough to make the conclusion true? (But other possibilities exist).

3. Necessary and sufficient condition: Both required and enough to guarantee the conclusion.

4. Neither necessary and sufficient condition: Even if true this condition does not guarantee its conclusion.

Decide whether the following conditions are (a) necessary conditions, (b) sufficient conditions, (c) both necessary and sufficient conditions, or neither necessary nor sufficient conditions.

Answer the following questions--

1. You have to play to win. Playing is a _____________________ condition to win.

2. The jury should find the defendant guilty, only if they believe she is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. If the jury has a reasonable doubt, then that is a ________________________ condition to find the defendant not guilty.

3. If the hurricane turns north, then issue an order to evacuate the city. The hurricane turning north is a _______________ condition for issuing an order for the city to evaluate.

4. In a court of law it is difficult to prove a causal connection from a prescription drug to a medical condition. This is because most medical conditions are the result of many causal factors and to prove that only one of the many confounding factors is responsible for the medical condition requires ruling out all but one factor. Thus nearly any causal factor is related to its associated medical condition as a ___________________ condition.

5. The organism that causes polio is transmitted by water. If a person is exposed to the polio organism, then the person gets some form of polio ranging from paralysis of some muscles to death. Children swimming in pools infected with polio organism often contract polio. Chlorine is one of several products that kills polio organism and when added to swimming pools prevents polio. So swimming in a lake is a ____________________ condition for children contracting polio.

Homework Answers

Answer #1

1) Playing is necessary condition to win . However it's is not sufficient because by playing one may loose also.

2)Reasonable doubt is sufficient condition to declare defendant not guilty.

3) Hurrucane turning north is necessary and sufficient condition for issuing order to evacuate.

4) Neither necessary not sufficient condition

5) Swimming in any lake is neither necessary nor sufficient for contracting polio. Swimming in lake is not necessary because polio may be transmitted through other sources such as drinking water , food etc. Moreover, swimming in lake is not sufficient for polio contraction , lake must be infected with polio virus and that must be transmitted.

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