1. Inside a Red Giant, denser elements fuse and emit sufficient energy to balance thermal expansion...

1. Inside a Red Giant, denser elements fuse and emit sufficient energy to balance thermal expansion versus gravity, until fusion of:

silica & sulphur


carbon & oxygen


deuterium & tritium

2. Structure of the Universe: 2dF and the Sloan Microwave Digital Survey plotted clusters of galaxies. What kind of structure was seen among super-clusters of galaxies?

Filaments of galaxies surround voids that have no or very few galaxies inside.

Super-clusters expand outward from a Big Bang source.

Super-clusters are uniform & homogeneous across the universe.

Each cluster of galaxies is the same size.

3. Galaxies move about the center of mass of their supercluster, sometimes merging due to:


Hubble's constant

dark energy

galactic currents

4. Uranus’s rotational axis points toward:

perpendicular to the ecliptic plane

an object almost in line with the ecliptic plane




5. What would be found on the Main Sequence?

red supergiants

super massive black holes

Cepheid variables

sun-like stars

white dwarfs

6. Which kind of galaxies are compact, have only visible red dwarfs, have little dust & gas but no disk or arms?






7. After the red supergiant phase, if the stellar core retains two solar masses, the result would be a:


black hole

white dwarf

neutron star

8. Every star emits "black body" radiation described by Wein's Law: At the peak radiation, the wavelength is inversely proportional to...

fusion density

photosphere temperature

emitted intensity

core temperature

speed of light

9. How would we recognize the presence of a black hole?

Find star(s) orbiting a blank spot.

Identify an accretion disk emitting x-rays.

Find an astrometric binary with a massive companion.

All of these answers would work.

10. Direct observations of the trajectories of stars travelling near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy provide very strong evidence for the presence of a supermassive black hole, millions of times the mass of our Sun.



11. To calculate the distance a star is from us, we measure the apparent magnitude and compare with the absolute magnitude of the star. We know that the intensity, I, diminishes with increased distance, D, (I is inversely proportional to D squared). Identify an object for which we know the absolute magnitude.

binary stars

brown giants

long period variables


Homework Answers

Answer #1

1 untill the fusion of carbon and oxygen , answer is 3 , when a star is completely exhausted of hydrogen then it becomes giant or supergiant.

2 Since the universe is expanding so the supercluster moves otward from big bang source, also on large scale all the galaxyclusters are homogeneous and uniform.

3 gravity is the force oppose the dark energy which cause the galaxies to merge.

4 toward sun, according to the observation of voyager2 its axis is tilted 97.7 percent as compared to other planet.

5 sunlike star are found on the main sequence in the G group.

6 Elliptical galaxies are basically galaxies having no spiral arms.

7 it cause supernova which undergo formation of black hole.

8 propertional to photosphere temperature.

9 all of these will work for the observation of black hole.

10 true

11 cepheid star are the standard candles which are used to measure distances.

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