Packet loss is detected by reliable protocols such as TCP. Reliable protocols react to packet loss automatically, so when a person such as a network administrator needs to detect and diagnose packet loss, they typically use status information from network equipment or purpose-built tools.
The Internet Control Message Protocol provides an echo functionality, where a special packet is transmitted that always produces a reply. Tools such as ping, traceroute, and MTR use this protocol to provide a visual representation of the path packets are taking, and to measure packet loss at each hop.[
Many routers have status pages or logs, where the owner can find the number or percentage of packets dropped over a particular period.
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