Question

Imagine that an asteroid is approaching the Moon. While far away from the Moon it is moving at 1 km/s, but as it approaches the Moon, it will accelerate due to the Moon’s gravity. The asteroid has a mass of 1012 kg. The Moon has a mass of 7.35x1022 kg and a radius of 1737 km.

A) How fast will the asteroid be moving when it hits the surface of the Moon?

B) How much kinetic energy will be released by the impact?

C) If 10% of the impact energy is released as radiation, what would be the observed flux at the Earth (a distance of 384,000 km away)?

Answer #1

Impacts! The relative velocity of an Asteroid impacting Earth
depends on the direction it is approaching Earth’s orbit from.
a. Earth’s escape velocity is ~11 km/s, the Earth orbits the sun
at ~30 km/s, and an asteroid crossing Earth’s orbit would have
about the same velocity of ~30 km/s. What are the minimum and
maximum velocities of impact for an asteroid hitting Earth?
b. Asteroid 1 with mass m1 hits Earth at a velocity of v1 = 50
km/s. Asteroid...

A large asteroid of mass 2.7x1022 kg, is heading directly toward
Earth, for a major catastrophic impact. Assume it hits the Earth
surface with relative speed of 44 km/s. Neglecting the effects of
Earth’s atmosphere, A) Determine the asteroid’s initial speed vi
when it was a distance of 9 Earth radii (9x6400km) from center of
Earth. B) Determine the change of Earth speed due to the impact or
the collision with this asteroid. C) If the density of the asteroid...

3. The Moon orbits the Earth every 27.3 days with a near
circular orbit of 385,000 km. What is the mass of the Earth based
on this information? What is the kinetic energy of the moon? (mass
of the Moon = 7.35 x 1022 kg) What is the potential
energy of the moon? What is the acceleration due to gravity
(towards the Earth) at the distance of the Moon?

The mass of a meteor with a radius of 1 km is about 9 x 1012 kg.
The mass of a meteor also is proportional to the cube of its
radius. Suppose a meteor with a radius of 8.1 km is moving at 2 x
104m/s when it collides inelastically with the Earth. The Earth has
a mass of 5.97 x 1024 kg and assume the Earth is stationary. The
kinetic energy lost by the asteroid in this collision will...

The mass of a meteor with a radius of 1 km is about 9 x 1012 kg.
The mass of a meteor also is proportional to the cube of its
radius. Suppose a meteor with a radius of 8.5 km is moving at 2.0 x
104 m/s when it collides inelastically with the Earth. The Earth
has a mass of 5.97 x 1024 kg and assume the Earth is stationary.
The kinetic energy lost by the asteroid in this collision...

The mass of a meteor with a radius of 1 km is about 9 x 1012 kg.
The mass of a meteor also is proportional to the cube of its
radius. Suppose a meteor with a radius of 11.4 km is moving at 1.8
x 104 m/s when it collides inelastically with the Earth. The Earth
has a mass of 5.97 x 1024 kg and assume the Earth is stationary.
The kinetic energy lost by the asteroid in this collision...

QUESTION 1
Part 1
Engineers wish to launch a satellite from the surface of the
Moon. What is the minimum speed the satellite must have to escape
the Moon’s gravity – that is, what is the escape velocity at the
surface of the Moon? The Moon has a mass of 7.3x10^22 kg and a
radius of 1.7x10^6 m.
a.
1700 m/s
b.
5.7x10^6 m/s
c.
It depends on the mass of the satellite.
d.
2400 m/s
Part 2
The satellite...

he mass of a meteor with a radius of 1 km is about 9 x 1012 kg.
The mass of a meteor also is proportional to the cube of its
radius. Suppose a meteor with a radius of 8.2 km is moving at 1.9 x
104 m/s when it collides inelastically with the Earth. The Earth
has a mass of 5.97 x 1024 kg and assume the Earth is stationary.
The kinetic energy lost by the asteroid in this collision...

2.) The mass of a meteor with a radius of 1 km is about 9 x 1012
kg. The mass of a meteor also is proportional to the cube of its
radius. Suppose a meteor with a radius of 10.7 km is moving at 1.7
x 104 m/s when it collides inelastically with the Earth. The Earth
has a mass of 5.97 x 1024 kg and assume the Earth is stationary.
The kinetic energy lost by the asteroid in this...

When a mass is far away from the moon it has a speed 3.2 times
its escape velocity from the moon. With what speed in metres per
second must the object have be launched from the surface of the
moon? (Mmoon = 7.36 X 1022 kg;
Rmoon = 1.74 X 106 kg)
The answer is 7970 m/s. Consider initial and final energy
conditions

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