Question

# If the experiment has been done correctly, you will have discovered that the density of water...

If the experiment has been done correctly, you will have discovered that the density of water has a maximum value at a temperature of 4 °C. The density of water is often quoted as being 1.000 g cm-3 (or 1000 kg m-3) at this temperature. The density of ice at 0 °C is approximately 0.917 g cm-3 (or 917 kg m-3). An iceberg will therefore float because it is less dense than the fluid it is immersed in. Consider an iceberg of volume 1km3 (= 109 m3) at 0 °C.

1. According to Archimedes’ Principle, what volume of the iceberg will float below the water level if the water is at 4 °C? (Hints: (i) The buoyancy force depends on the volume that is submerged; (ii) what is the apparent weight when it floats?)

2. If the iceberg in question 3 melts, what volume will the meltwater from it occupy at a temperature of 4 °C? Compare this with your answer to Question 3.

3. The global average water temperature is approximately 16 °C. Using the density of water calculator, determine what volume the meltwater from the iceberg in the previous example will occupy at this temperature.

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