a) Refining of Crude Oil: Refining is the processing of Crude oil in to number of useful hydrocarbons such as LPG, gasoline etc. Crude oil is separated in to fraction through fractional distillation process. The fraction art the top of the distillation column have low boiling points that the products at the bottom. The heavy bottom fractions are often cracked into lighter, more useful products.
b) Catalytic Cracking: It is the refinery process in which heavy oil is passed through metal chambers(called as catalytic crackers) under pressure and high temperature in the presence of catalysts such as alumina, silica or zeolites. This boiling breaks up heavy, large and more complex long-chain oil molecules in to lighter, smaller and simpler short-chain molecules such as gasoline.
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