A 12 meter long and 12 mm inner diameter smooth pipe is used to heat a liquid in an industrial process. The liquid enters the pipe at a temperature of 25o C and a mean velocity of 0.80 m/s. A uniform heat flux is maintained by an electric resistance heater wrapped around the outer surface of the pipe so that the fluid exits at 75o C. The fluid average properties are ? = 1000 kg/m3 , Cp = 4000 J/kg·K, µ = 2x10?3 kg/m·s, and k = 0.48 W/m·K. Calculate: (a) The required surface heat flux produced by the heater; (b) The surface temperature at the exit; (c) The pressure drop through the pipe and the power required to overcome the flow resistance.
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