You are required to write a Business Plan Report and you are
advised to follow the below given outline.
Part I- Product/service idea Business Plan Report (40%)
To make the best impression, a business plan should follow a convention structure, such as the outline shown below.
Table of contents
1. Executive Summary
A succinct highlight of the overall plan- include ownership structure, business address, product/service, the management team and strategy and strengths.
2. Industry Analysis
An overview of the industry, including consideration of the competition, industry trends, and regulatory bodies.
3. Definition of the Business
Explanation of the business concept, the current offering and the projected growth.
4. Purpose of the Business Plan
Dominant reason for the preparation of the business plan.
5. Business Feasibility
Analysis of the demand (include highlights of the findings of the market feasibility study), risk (include business and market risks), environmental impact.
6. Justification of the Business
Economic, social and personal benefits.
7. Organisation and Management
Vision and mission statement, corporate goals, managerial competence, organisation structure and organisation chart.
8. Operational Considerations
Location, technical requirements (explain key business processes), equipment required (state whether it is a manufacturing or retail business), suppliers of raw materials, utilities, opening hours etc.
9. Marketing Arrangements
Target market, definition of the product or service, pricing, distribution and promotion.
10. Financial Consideration
Source of financing, capital cost, pre-operating expenses, working capital requirements, cash budget over three years (estimation of the cash inflows and outflows).
Tools used in feasibility study, profile of management team, prospective suppliers and clients, samples of product design, labels, promotional campaigns, floor plan and legal documents (where possible)
Bibliography, credits, acknowledgements.
Guidelines writing business plan
1. All work must be submitted in English.
2. Please use the same format for completing the final project report:
a. Use A4 size paper and leave at least 40 mm for the left-hand margin and about 25 mm for the right-hand margin. Also leave about 40 mm at the top and 25 mm at the bottom of each sheet.
b. Font is Arial and font size 12.
c. Paragraph spacing 1.5.
d. Number each sheet at the bottom. As you write, make cross-references by section rather than by pages. Page numbers may change later. If you wish to refer to the page numbers in the text, do so only after you have the final version of the report.
e. Sections and subsections should be numbered for reference, but avoid cumbersome sub-sub-section numbering such as 220.127.116.11. To keep the
contents, list short, include only numbered headings. There is probably no need to exceed two digit numbers, such as 4.2 or 3.4.
f. Headings should be used at the beginning of sections and anywhere else necessary. Carefully selected headings make the report clearer and will avoid confusing the reader. They should be distinguished by a change of font or size, or may be underlined in the report.
g. Tables should be used to present information concisely where graphs or histograms are not appropriate. In setting out tables, arrange the data so that there are more rows than columns and use a minimum of horizontal lines. Table headings should follow the section number (e.g., in Section 1, Table 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 ...) in the order in which they are mentioned. They can then be referred to in the text by number only (e.g., Table 1.1). Place the tables in the text near to where they are first referred to. If you use a very large number of tables, they may be more conveniently placed at the end of the report or you may want to put them in the appendix.
h. Equations should be numbered by section (e.g., in Section 2, Equation 2.3, 2.7 ...). You may need to show an equation in the financial projection section. This ensures that if one is deleted or if you need to refer to an equation that you have not previously numbered, only those in that particular section need to be re-numbered. Keep the number to the right margin of the page. Check all references to equations in the text when editing your final draft.
i. Graphs, histograms, drawings, diagrams and photographs should all be referred to as figures: Figure 1.1, Figure 1.2, and so on. If the size of the figures is small, you may put two on one page. Insert a caption for each figure. Place the figures in the text next to where they are first mentioned. Keep the labelling inside the figures to a minimum using letters, abbreviations and symbols; avoid phrases. Use the figure caption to explain the details. For example, different curves on a graph may be labelled A, B, C and so on and each can then be identified in the caption. Check all references to figures in the text and any information you quote from within the details of the figure.
j. You may use different colours between curves or parts of a diagram.
3. Please remember, all information provided should be your own, if not, proper referencing must be used.
The overall business idea revolves around utilizing the opportunities avialable in low cost countries like India to export Medium Duty (12 tonne to 16 tonne Gross vehicle Weight(GVW)) and Heavy Duty ( >16 tonne to 24 tonne GVW) commercial Buses to Middle east and Northern Africa (MENA) and Africa (Eastern and Southern Africa).
Strengths available in low cost manufacturing country like India are:
High competency levels, low cost labour , availability of manpower (Engineers) and stable political conditions.
The need for commercial buses in MENA and African countries are as shown below in the table:
|Countries where opportunities are available
|Weight of vehicle
|Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and UAE
|12 T to 16 T vehicle
|Labour transportation, Short distance commuter
|Other MENA countries are excluded due to political instability
|South Africa, Kenya, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Tunisia, Botswana and Mauritius
|16T to 24T Vehicle
|Long distance travel
|Other African countries are excluded due to low income levels and political instability
Certain other boundary conditions with which a Bus manufacturing company needs to deal with are as shown below:
|Boundary condition to be addressed by a Bus manufacturing company in India
|Market need and Competition
a. Addressing the existing market need through the product manufactured for a specific application only
b. Bus volumes of other manufacturers in the Chosen export country
c. Expected volume growth of the Buses based on market need
d. Basic understanding of other types of competiton available in Chosen export countries like Trains, Commercial flights, low cost taxis etc. Market growth trends available with the research agencies.
a. Capability to manufacture both Left hand drive and Right hand drive buses with the available low cost supplier base
b. Availability of technology to build Aluminium structure bodies
c. Technology to modify available tooling in the manufacturing setup to make bodies of both 2.5m width and 2.6m width.
d. Processes available to manufacture Fully built vehicle (FBV), and Ready to Drive (RTD) Chassis as per the market need.
e. Capability to ramp up the manufacturing capacity from 500 to 1500 buses as per the need.
a. Import duties in the MENA and African countries that can play a very big role in the financials
b. Clearance from United Nations to export buses to chosen MENA and African countries
c. Favourable political conditions
d. Money payment mechanisms available through swift money transfers and financial health of the customers
a. Availability of Vessels or Ships that can take manufactured buses from India to Chosen Export destinations
b. Frequency of Vessels
c. Capabilities of the Importer to clear the Buses from the Customs department in the port
d. Financial health of the Importer / Distributor in the Chosen export country
a. Servicing capabilities of the Key suppliers (Engine, Transmission, Fuel pump etc) to be available in Chosen export destinations.
b. Acceptability level of India Manufactured products in Chosen Export Countries
|Trade Agreements , Incentives and Excise duty/ Tax benefits
a. Availability of Trade Agreements between India and Chosen Export country that can help reduce the Import Duties and hence support a strong Business case
b. Availability of Incentives provided by Indian government as per the Foreign Trade policies for exporting Buses that can strengthen the business case
c. Availability of other benefits like Zero Excise Duty and reduced Tax for exporting high value products.
|Relationship with Embassies and Consulates
|a. Favourable relationships with Embassies and Consulates help the manufacturing company to get reliable contacts vetted by the Embassy or consulates while searching for an Importer or a Distributor
|a. Favourable exchange rates with low fluctuations that can strengthen the business case whn made for a long term
The Business of manufacturing Medium duty and Heavy Duty buses and exporting it to chosen countries in MENA and African regions needs to have a proper planning and execution strategies as shown below:
a. Get a basic understanding of the Chosen export countries - feasibility and political scenario from Research Agencies like Frost and Sullivan etc.
b. Address all the boundary conditions mentioned and make a Business report. Address this report to the Top Management to get their views and put facts on table
c. Prepare a Market Entry strategy to Chosen export destination which would be as follows:
1. Entry with a market company office
2. Entry through a Distributor who is already having experience of distributing competitor buses
3. Entry through an Importer who shall be responsible to import the buses and hand it over to Chosen customers
d. Prepare an exit strategy with all the conditions mentioned having proper timelines and minimum cost considerations as mentioned in the timelines.
e. Lastly, ensure that there is Budget available in the company to execute the plan
a. With a market company or Importer or a Distributor, build a proper marketing campaign plan to Introduce manufactured products in the Chosen export country
b. Build customer base and spend more time with customers to build profitable contacts
c. Build a strong service network that can address key issues with the customer and ensure that every contact with the customer is recorded so as to retrieve when needed.
d. Celebrate small succeses in order to keep up the motivation levels within the Manufacturing company.
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