Author Chester Barnard viewed organizations as cooperative
systems, that he defined as a complex of physical, biological,
personal, and social components that are in a specific systematic
relationship by reason of the cooperation of two or more persons
for at least one definite end.
Criticism of Chester Barnard's Theory.
- The presentation by Barnard has been considered quite abstract.
Quite general examples are given to make points.
- Though, the purpose has been emphasized as central to the
cooperative group effort still the process of its formulation has
not been described in detail.
- The concept of authority according to Barnard seems to give the
impression that it may be accepted or rejected by the subordinates.
In practice, it is sometimes required to maintain order in the
organization at all costs.