Question

Case Study: Chloe is a 21 year old, female student athlete. She is 5’7” and weighs...

Case Study:

Chloe is a 21 year old, female student athlete. She is 5’7” and weighs 130 pounds. Chloe is on the college cross-country team. She tries to eat plenty of grains and fruits to get the carbohydrates needed for her high level of physical activity. She eats 3 meals a day and a snack in the evenings. Chloe is a fairly strict vegetarian, typically including foods consistent with a lactovegetarian or lacto-ovo-vegetarian depending on the season and her current mood. She also avoids alcohol and various forms of tobacco.

Diet analysis revealed Chloe’s caloric intake for three days was 6500 calories (approximately 2200 kcal per day) and she's maintaining her current body weight. She averages 330 grams of carbohydrate, 61 grams of fat, and 83 grams of protein per day, according to her diet record. Her vitamin B12 intake averaged 0.24 μg/day (recommendation for B12 is 2.4 μg/day). A typical day for Chloe would include eating cheese sticks and a glass of orange juice for breakfast; a slice of bread with peanut butter, apple, bag of pretzels, and raspberry iced tea for lunch; spaghetti with marinara sauce, garlic bread, salad, and a glass of milk for dinner; and an orange for an evening snack. This semester, Chloe feels tired more often and almost always has to take a sweatshirt to class to keep warm. Chloe is also unable to concentrate well.

1) Based on her BMI and body composition, how would you classify her weight? Are you able to make the same classification based on each or do they differ?

2) After reviewing Chloe’s typical dietary intake and her symptoms [fatigue/inability to concentrate/difficulty regulating body temperature], what nutrient (commonly deficient in female athletes) do you think she is lacking? List 5 specific dietary changes or substitutions you would suggest for her to improve her intake of this nutrient.

3) Since Chloe is a collegiate level athlete, we can assume her activity level is “very active”. What is her EER?

4) You recommend Chloe consume a diet that emphasizes a variety of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, beans, seeds, nuts, some milk and eggs. You also indicate that she might benefit from certain fortified/enriched foods and potentially a multivitamin/mineral supplement including iron. She doesn’t think that sounds like what she sees in the media and on her Instagram feed for “diet for physical performance”. She’s interested in supplements like protein powder, BCAA’s (Branched Chain Amino Acids), and potentially caffeine before an event. Many of her fellow student-athletes talk about supplements or dietary aids to help their performance. How do you convince her to focus on a healthy diet versus spending money on supplements that may or may not help her performance (or may hurt it)?

1.BMI of chole is 20.36

According to classification of weight:

Normal

Weight Classification. BMI category
Underweight. less than 18.5
Normal weight. 18.5-24.9
Overweight. 25-29.9
Obesity class I. 30-34.9
Obesity class II. 35-39.9
Obesity class lll. Greater than 40

Based on BMI and body composition chole is considered normal weight.

2.chole is lacking vitamin B 12.

To increase the amount of vitamin B12 in your diet, eat more of foods that contain it, such as:
Beef, liver, and chicken.
Fish and shellfish such as trout, salmon, tuna fish, and clams.
Fortified breakfast cereal.
Low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese.
Eggs.

For vitamin B12 deficiency: Vitamin B12 doses of 300-10,000 mcg daily have been used. However, some evidence suggests that the most effective oral dose is between 647-1032 mcg daily.

3.EER of an active female 21 years old with height 5'7 inches ,weight 130 lbs is:

Formula of EER of female-

EER= 354-(6.91×age(yr)+PA×(9.36×weight(kg))+726×height (meters))

PA of an active female is 1.27

Weight is 130 pounds

Convert into Kg's

130 pounds = 58.69kgs

Height 5'7 convert into meters

5'7 inches= 1.70 meters.

EER=354-(6.91×21)+1.27(9.36×58.69)+(726×1.70)

EER=354-(145.11)+1.27×(549.33)+(1234.2)

EER=208.89+1.27×1783.53

EER=208.89+2265.08

EER=2473.97KCAL.

4.Supplements aren't intended to replace food. They can't replicate all of the nutrients and benefits of whole foods, such as fruits and vegetables.

Whole foods offer three main benefits over dietary supplements:

1.Greaternutrition. Whole foods are complex, containing a variety of the micronutrients your body needs.

2.Essential fiber. Whole foods, such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables and legumes, provide dietary fiber. Dietary fiber can help reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, colorectal cancer, stroke and heart disease.

3.Protective substances. Many whole foods contain chemicals that promote health, such as antioxidants — substances that slow down a natural process leading to cell and tissue damage.

• Manysupplements contain active ingredients that have strong biological effects in the body. This could make them unsafe in some situations and hurt or complicate your health.
• Taking more than you need costs more and might also raise your risk of side effects. For example, too much vitamin A can cause headaches and liver damage, reduce bone strength, and cause birth defects. Excess iron causes nausea and vomiting and may damage the liver and other organs.
• By explaining her the benefits of food and disadvantages of supplements I will convince chole to follow healthy diet.

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