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Quantitative Research Designs 101
Quantitative research attempts to do which of the following?
a. Identify, define and measure factors that contribute to a disorder or disease.
b. Examine relationships among factors.
c. Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an intervention.
d. All of the above
Qualitative and quantitative research designs are appropriate to answer different types of public health questions. Which of the following is NOT an objective of qualitative research?
a. To answer “how” or “why” questions about public health practice.
b. To explore similarities and differences in experiences, beliefs, feelings and perceptions.
c. To determine whether an outcome is caused by a particular exposure.
d. To increase understanding about issues, phenomena or processes.
If you have a question about effectiveness, you are looking for research evidence about whether an intervention will prevent a problem/condition/disease or will treat a problem/condition/disease.
True or False?
Why is it important to determine the most appropriate type of research design to best answer your practice-based public health question?
a. Research helps to inform public health decision making.
b. It will help you to know who to ask.
c. So you can identify the strongest, most appropriate research evidence to answer your question.
d. Knowing the type of research design will prepare you to conduct a research study to answer your question.
Which of the following is an example of a public health practice question about the effectiveness of an intervention?
a. Is smoking during pregnancy associated with an increased risk of pre-term labour?
b. Do community-based programs focused on positive self-image impact teen girl’s (aged 12-17) self-esteem when compared to school-based programs?
c. What infant characteristics (< 4 months of age) place them at high risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)?
d. Is work-related stress associated with risk for heart attack among adult men?
Consider the following practice-based public health question: Among adolescent girls aged 12-17, do community-based programs focused on positive self-image impact teen girl’s self-esteem when compared to school-based programs? Identify the components of this question:
a. P: adolescent girls (aged 12-17)
I : community-based program focused on positive self-image
C: school-based program for positive self-image
O: self-reported self-esteem
b. P: adolescent girls in the general
E: dating violence
C: no experience of dating violence
O: number of girls reporting positive self-esteem
c. P: adolescent girls with low self esteem
S: experience of participating in a community based peer support program to promote positive self-esteem among teens
d. P: adolescent girls attending middle school or
I: school based intervention to promote positive self-image
C: no intervention
O: self-reported self-esteem
What is the main difference between a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and a cohort-analytic study design?
a. In an RCT participants can choose whether they receive the intervention or are assigned to the control group.
b. An RCT is prospective and a cohort-analytic study is retrospective.
c. In a cohort analytic study participants are not randomly allocated to an experimental group or comparison/control group.
d. An RCT involves the comparison of two groups but a cohort-analytic study design involves only one group.
When is an RCT not the most appropriate or suitable research design to answer a question about intervention effectiveness?
a. When it is not ethical to randomly allocate study participants to experimental or comparison/control groups.
b. When it is not practical to conduct an RCT because the outcome is very rare and a very large number of participants would need to be enrolled in the trial.
c. When it is not feasible to conduct an RCT because the outcome may take a very long time to manifest.
d. All of the above
Which of the following is an example of a public health practice question about causation?
a. What is the lived experience of survivors of a suicide attempt in First Nations, on-reserve communities?
b. Among individuals with community acquired MRSA (methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus), what is the best strategy for preventing transmission to family members?
c. Do school breakfast programs minimize hunger and improve academic achievement among children from disadvantaged households?
d. Is bed sharing associated with an increased risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)?
Which of the following statements best describes a cross-sectional survey design?
a. A study that involves the collection of data about both an exposure and an outcome at the same point in time from a sample of the population.
b. A study that involves a sample of participants who self-select into the control group who are then followed forward in time.
c. A study that involves the collection of outcome data only after an intervention and compares to another group that did not receive the intervention.
d. A study that compares participants that experienced an outcome with those that have not experienced the outcome (and looks back in time to identify risk factors).
What is the main limitation of a case-control study design when answering a question about causation?
a. It involves the collection of data about the exposure and outcome at one point in time.
b. You cannot determine whether exposure to a risk factor occurred prior to the outcome.
c. It is a very expensive study design to conduct in comparison to other research designs.
d. It does not involve a comparison/control group.
Which of the following explains why a cohort study is a more rigorous design than a case-control study? A cohort study:
a. follows participants forward in time thereby reducing recall bias.
b. ensures the sample is more representative of the population.
c. allows conclusion to be made about risk factors being the cause of specific health outcomes.
d. leads to groups (those exposed to the risk factor and those are not) being more similar at baseline.
e. all of the above
1, d, All of the above
The quantitative analysis attempts to establish factors that relationships among the variables, it attempts to explain causal relationship between variables. it is cost-effective analysis evaluate interventions and continues with understanding how the factors related to disease and illness.
2, c, To determine whether an outcome is caused by a particular exposes.
Qualitative research design make a casual relationship between causes and outcomes.
Qualitative research verift the population sample and size, their beliefs and understands their needs and identity why and how the results are related to causes, it also enhances understanding complex phenomena and provide a detailed understanding of process close to the field.
evidence based clinical practice for different clinical questions that focus on causes, prognosis, diagnosis, prevention, treatment cost of health treatment. quantitative analysis address all these factors in clinical questions.
4, c, So you can identify the strongest, most appropriate research evidence to answer your questions.
Practice based research address the evidence based scitific research and information needs of practicing health professionals. public health evidence based question have direct and indirect benefits and provide more quality information with evidence based interventions that address population based health problems.
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