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# 1. What is a case? 2. What is a sentinel event? 3. What is an ‘index’...

1. What is a case?

2. What is a sentinel event?

3. What is an ‘index’ case?

4. What is the definition of epidemiology?

5. Define crude rates?

6. Distinguish between incidence and prevalence.

7. Define attack rate.

8. What is the ‘population at risk’?

9. Distinguish among epidemic, endemic, and pandemic.

10.

In an epidemic in Syck City (population 100,000 – 60,000 males and 40,000 females), there were 600 cases (350 males, 250 females) of a severe disease. (Some called it a new venereal disease.) There were 70 deaths (all males) resulting from this disease and 880 deaths resulting from causes other than the specific disease. Calculate the following (a) crude death rate (b) cause-specific mortality rate (c) case fatality rate (d) cause-specific morbidity rate for females (e) case fatality rate for males (f) case fatality rate for females. Show all work. Circle your answers.

11.

There are 346 students at Hillside School. During February and March, 56 pupils were absent with chickenpox.   What is the attack rate for chickenpox at Hillside School? The 56 pupils who were absent had 88 brothers and sisters at home. Of the 88 siblings, 19 developed chickenpox. What was the attack rate among these children? Of the 75 total cases of chickenpox, one child died. Calculate the case fatality rate for chickenpox in this epidemic. (Show your work)

1-) The case is a particular instance of a something like a disease or injury.

2-)sentinel event are unexpected events that result in a patient's death or a serious physical or psychological injury to a patient or patients, not related to the natural course of the patient's illness

3-) index case is defined as the first documented case of an infectious disese or genetically transmitted condition or mutations in a population.

4-) Epidemiology is the scientific study of the spread and control of disease. OR

epidemiology is the study( scientific, systematic, and data - driven) of the distribution ( frequency, pattern) and determinants ( causes, risk factors) pf health - realtes states and events ( not just disease) in specified population ( neighborhood, schools , city, State, country, global).

5-) A crude rate is the number of new cases ( or deaths) occuring in a specified population per year, usually expressed as the number of casses per 100,000 population at risk.

6-) prevalence and incidence are frequently confused.

prevalence:- refers to proportion of persons who have a condition at or during a particular time and period,

Incidence:- refers to the proportion or rate of persons who develop a condition during a particular time and period.

7-) In Epidemiology, the attack rate is the percentage of the population that contracts the disease in an at risk population during a specified time interval.

8-)the population at risk is the population that is exposed to the occurrence of a vital event , for example , the total population in the case of death , the legally married population in the case of divorce and so on.

9-)An EPIDEMIC:- is a disease that affects a large number of people within a community, population, or region

A PANDEMIC:- is an epidemic that's spread over multiple countries or continents.

AN ENDEMIC:- is something that belongs to a particular people or country.

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