Q9. Case study:Peter Smith, a 19 year old university student, was suffering from influenza and visited his local GP. He said he began to feel unwell two days earlier and his condition had worsened since with an acute onset of a sore throat(pharyngitis). On examination the following observations were made: Fever of 38.9 degrees C, Runny nose, Sneezing, Enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy) Peter’s throat was observed to have the following signs: Redness, Swollen, Having a patchy covering of yellow-white exudate over his tonsils The doctor prescribed phenoxymethylpenicillin 500 mg twice per day for ten days.
Question:4.2 Describe the physiological basis of the second sign in Peter’s throat. Relate your response to this case study
Influenza can be considered as an acute respiratory tract infection caused by jnfluenza virus.
There are three types of Influenza they are A, B,C.
All of the know pandemics that occurred were known to cause due to influenza A strain.
Influenza A virus has 2 distant surface antigen which include hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase(N) .
The H antigen may be responsible for the initiation of the virus following its attachment to the susceptible cells
The N antigen on the other hand is responsible for the release of the virus from the infected cells
Influenza is known to effect those with reduced immunity to a greater extent that involves geriatric and children. . Antibody production is know to effect the course of illness. Antibodies may appear 7 days after the attack and may be able to reach a maximum level in 8 weeks. The local secretory antibody is probably important to prevent infection. Secretary IgA antibodies may develop in nasal secretion.
But in the above case study the age listed is 19 yrs which promotes recovery and may have the immunity.
The virus enters the respiratory tract and hence this results in a immune response
There is antibody and antigen reaction, which may result in release of various mediators cells which may further lead to inflammation and swelling of the respiratory tract.
And as in the above case study may cause pharyngitis due to severe inflammation and hence may develop redness.
There may be fever like 38.6°C in case of above case study due to severe inflammation Involvement of hypothalamic Thermoregulator may be there.
Excess immune response and antigen antibody reaction may further lead to yellow patch due to severe inflammation and reaction.
In such cases drugs like Phenoxymethylpenicillin may be started which acts as a antibiotic and helps fight bacteria.
Get Answers For Free
Most questions answered within 1 hours.