This week, we are learning about issues surrounding human genetics and eugenics, including stem cell research, cloning, and genetic testing and treatment.
in your own words,
Human genetics and Eugenics:
Human genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics in particular chromosomes and DNA.
Eugenics: The science of improving stock , whether human or animal .
An example of science technique/ practice related to genetics is Prenatal genetic testing.
Prenatal genetic testing:
Prenatal genetic testing is meant for providing the information to the parents regarding the presence of any genetic disorders of their fetus. Genetic disorders are the medical conditions that are directly caused by an abnormality in the genes. The commonly found genetic disorders are :
* Chromosomal disorders:
Examples: Trisomy ( Down Syndrome or Trisomy 21) , monosomy , Aneuploidy
* Inherited disorders:
Examples: Sickle cell disease , Tay- Sach's disease, Cystic fibrosis etc.
There are two types of Prenatal Genetic tests ;
* Prenatal Screening tests: to identify the chances of getting genetic disorders for the fetus. example: Ultrasound screening test
* Prenatal diagnostic tests: to identify whether the fetus has genetic disorders or not. The tests performed on the cells obtained through the procedures like Amniocentesis and Chorionic villus sampling . Non invasive prenatal genetic tests like blood tests are available now a days
Rationale: Prenatal genetic tests are one of the useful techniques in medical science. It is considered as the wonderful contribution of human genetics to the Medical science .The main purpose and Advantages of the prenatal genetic testing are:
* helps to identify the chromosomal disorders in fetus
* helps to identify the neural tube defects and in fetus
* It helps to ease the anxiety of the parents.
* Enable the parents to take an informed decision for continuing the pregnancy or not.
* parents can organise necessary arrangements for the baby, who is having a defect.
Justifiable or not: Prenatal genetic tests are justifiable as far as it is using for a good purpose. There exist controversies over prenatal testing and certain countries restrict the procedures based on ehical or religious basis , as these tests may increase the abortion rate and also invasive techniques possess a threat to mother and fetus. Most of the couples may prefer to terminate the pregnancy after knowing the genetic defect on the fetus. It is an Ethical issue. We can use Prenatal genetic test to plan for a good parenthood and a safe delivery.
Get Answers For Free
Most questions answered within 1 hours.