Priyanka, a 65-year old female suffering from late-stage Parkinson’s disease, has been experiencing severe nausea and...

Priyanka, a 65-year old female suffering from late-stage Parkinson’s disease, has been experiencing severe nausea and vomiting after a para-umbilical hernia surgery. Given the costs involved, her doctor has decided on a dopamine antagonist anti-emetic. She is currently taking a levodopa-carbidopa mixture and pramipexole. Over the course of her anti-Parkinson’s disease treatment, she has steadily become more reliant on online shopping.

a. Suggest an appropriate anti-emetic she can use. Justify your selection.

b. Explain how the anti-emetic will reduce nausea and vomiting.

c. Discuss why carbidopa is administered together with levodopa.

d. Explain how her pharmacotherapy aggravated her online shopping.

Homework Answers

Answer #1

Reduction in dopamine levels in one's brain can worsen Parkinson's disease in a patient, even though the cause of the disease is unknown. And, during treatment of this disease the patient might feel nausea. So, to avoid vomiting sensation anti-emetic drugs can be suggested.

a. Anti-emetic that does not increase the Parkinson's disease as well it's symptoms like tremor and mobility etc is the best for the patient. So, a dopamine antagonist domperidone, which can block the movement of dopamine from brain to other parts of the body, through blood brain barrier. And, this whole mechanism of this drug occurs by making it not crossing the blood brain barrier which is might not lead to other disadvantages caused by usual anti-emetic drugs.

b. Nausea or vomiting might occur due to release of serotonin from serotonin receptors. These receptors are blocked by serotonin antagonists or anti-emetic drugs. These drugs can be given as intravenous and oral supplement.

c. For Parkinson's disease, levodopa and carbidopa is given combined to increase the efficiency of the former. This is because, levodopa might get converted into dopamine, before even entering into brain, through blood brain barrier which can cause increase in dopamine outside the brain. And, carbidopa which does not enter the barrier, help in making levodopa stable, during it's mechanism. So, further increase in dopamine in the other body organs is avoided by combination of levodopa and carbidopa.

d. During the course of anti-Parkinson's disease treatment, dopamine level go high, which can lead to development in mood and more of it can even lead to some addiction like over eating, shopping and coffee etc,. So, dopamine increase in this patient caused reliant behaviour in her and increased the urge to shop more. This occurs due to dopaminergic medication to prevent Parkinson's disease for the long term benefit and the exact reason for such behavioral changes is still unknown and such addiction varies from one person to another.

Know the answer?
Your Answer:

Post as a guest

Your Name:

What's your source?

Earn Coins

Coins can be redeemed for fabulous gifts.

Not the answer you're looking for?
Ask your own homework help question
Similar Questions
Need Online Homework Help?

Get Answers For Free
Most questions answered within 1 hours.

Ask a Question
Active Questions
  • Can someone explain how the receptive field of photoreceptors (dots of light) build to circles of...
    asked 8 minutes ago
  • Find the Laplace Transformation of the Function f(t) = t, 0 < t < 1 t^2,...
    asked 9 minutes ago
  • Determine whether the set of all continuous functions on [0,1] satisfying f(0) = 1 constitutes a...
    asked 10 minutes ago
  • Infinity Designs, an interior design company, has experienced a drop in business due to an increase...
    asked 19 minutes ago
  • What is the difference between prezygotic and postzygotic reproduction barriers (reproductive isolating mechanisms, RIMs) between species...
    asked 19 minutes ago
  • What government policies are likely to restrict international trade? Are these effects likely to affect that...
    asked 21 minutes ago
  • PEST Analysis on Art Gallery in Canada? (Toronto) - Political - Economic - Social - Technological
    asked 23 minutes ago
  • What activities or functions do all managers perform regularly? How do these functions apply to the...
    asked 26 minutes ago
  • Critically evaluate Geoff Scott’s argument that shareholders are expecting a dividend and if not paid one...
    asked 29 minutes ago
  • Explain, in your words, the following renewal provisions that may appear in individual health insurance policies:...
    asked 31 minutes ago
  • A recent national survey found that high school students watched an average (mean) of 7.1 movies...
    asked 36 minutes ago
  • Assume that women's heights are normally distributed with a mean of 63.6 inches and standard deviation...
    asked 47 minutes ago