Using short essay format, and in your own words, answer the following questions. 1. Describe the...

Using short essay format, and in your own words, answer the following questions.

1. Describe the structure of a monosaccharide and name the three monosaccharides important in nutrition. Name the three disaccharides commonly found in foods and their component monosaccharides. In what foods are these sugars found?

2. Describe the structure of polysaccharides and name the ones important in nutrition. How are starch and glycogen similar, and how do they differ? How do the fibers differ from other polysaccharides?

3. How does the body maintain its blood glucose concentration? What happens when the blood glucose concentration rises too high or falls too low?

4. What are the health effects of starches and fibers? What are the dietary recommendations regarding concentrated sugar intakes?

5. How do water soluble vitamins differ from fat soluble vitamins?

6. Define ways to prevent loss of water soluble vitamins during food processing/preparation?

7. Which B vitamins are involved in energy metabolism? Protein metabolism? Cell division?

8. Why were sailors once plagued by scurvy, and what were their most likely symptoms?

Homework Answers

Answer #1

1.Monosaccharides are simplest form of sugar they can't be hydrolyzed further,simple formula for monosaccharides are CnH2nOn.example is glucose C6H12O6. Important monosaccharides are glucose,fructose and galactose

Three important disaccharides are  

Sucrose ( table suger)- 1glucose +1fructose

Lactose (milk sugar )- 1glucose +1galactose

Maltose (malt suger)- 1glucose +1 glucose

2. Monosaccharides combine to form polysaccharide, structure of polysaccharide is Cx(H2O)y, where x is usually more than 200 . Polysaccharide are the impoortant energy sources for body, they help in metabolism and nutrients to cells. Starch is storage form polysaccharide for plants rich in potatoes,legumes. They are rich sources of energy for animals. Glycogen is known as animal starch because animals store glucose in the form of glycogen in liver. Polysaccharide and fiber are complex carbohydrates but fibers are can't be digested by body however these help for maintaining digestion

3. Insulin is hormone secreted by pancreas help to maintain blood glucose level in body . When excess glucose level occurs by insulin deficiency or inadequate action of insulin lead to hyperglycemia (excess glucose in blood )or diabetes mellitus characterized by excess urination,fatigue, blurred vision , head ache and other various long complications. Less glucose in body is hypoglycemia lead to unconcious, sweating and fatal to life.

4. Starches and fibers are complex carbohydrates but starches can be digested by body to energy and carbohydrates, but fibers can't be digested but help in digestion,lowering BP. Concentrate sugars are helping body for long run because it will take long time to digest it so feeling of fullness will be there.

5 .Water soluble vitamins are soluble in water they are excreted fast so daily intake is needed .example are Vitamine C and B complex. Fat soluble vitamins are soluble in fats they are stored in body example are Vitamins A,D,E,K

6. Steaming foods , Minimum water usage for cooking,eat early, drinking balance water from cooked item and microwaving are some methods to reduce vitamin lose

7.enery metabolism- Thiamine ,riboflavin ,Niacin

Cell metabolism-,vitamin B12,Folate Biotin

Protein metabolism -Biotin, Pyridoxime,Panthothenic acid

8. Scurvy occurs due to vitamine C deficiency vitamine c is produce collagen help to keep soft tissues healthy . Sailors lack fruits and vegetables and have alcohol addiction they develop scurvy. Symptoms of scurvy start from fatigue and weakness follow by swollen gums and bleeding if untreated lead to severe gum bleeding teeth lose , bleeding joints,bleeding skin internal organs and even death.

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