NCI, an unlevered firm, has expected earnings before interest and taxes of $2 million per year. NCI's tax rate is 40%, and the market value is V=E=$12 million. The stock has a beta of 1.00, and the risk free rate is 9%. [Assume that market risk premium is 6%. Management is considering the use of debt; debt would be issued and used to buy back stock, and the size of the firm would remain constant. The default free interest rate on debt is 12%. Since interest expense is tax deductible, the value of the firm would tend to increase as debt is added to the capital structure, but there would be an offset in the form of the rising cost of bankruptcy. The firm's analysts have estimated, approximately, that the present value of any bankruptcy cost is $8 million and the probability of bankruptcy will increase with leverage according to the following schedule:
Value of debt Probability of failure
$ 2,500,000 0.00%
$ 5,000,000 8.00%
$ 7,500,000 20.5%
$ 8,000,000 30.0%
$ 9,000,000 45.0%
a. What is the cost of equity and WACC at this time?
b. What is the optimal capital structure when bankruptcy costs are considered?
c. What will the value of the firm be at this optimal capital structure
|Market Value||$12 million|
|Risk Free rate||9%|
|Market Risk premium||6%|
|Default free interest in debt(Kd)||12%|
Interest expense is tax deductable
Cost of Equity(Ke) = Risk Free Rate+ Beta*(Market Risk Premium)
WACC Formula = (E/V * Ke) + (D/V) * Kd * (1 – Tax rate)
WACC = (12000000/20000000)*.15+ (8000000/20000000)*.12*(1-.4)
The Cost of Equity is 15% and the WACC is 11.88% at this time.
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