Hailey just started her first job at Whatcom Co. as a junior budget analyst. She is working for the Venture Capital Division and has been given for capital budgeting projects to evaluate. She must give her analysis and recommendation to the capital budgeting committee.
Hailey has a B.S. in accounting from WWU (2007) and passed the CPA test (2008). She has been in public accounting for 2 years. During that time, she earned an MBA from Seattle U. She would like to be the CFO of a company somedaymaybe Whatcom Co.  and this is an opportunity to get onto that career track and to prove her ability.
As Hailey looks over the financial data collected, she is trying to make sense of it all. She already has the most difficult part of the analysis complete  the estimation of cash flows. Through some internet research and application of finance theory, she has also determined the firm’s beta.
Here is the information that Hailey has accumulated so far:
The Capital Budgeting Projects
She must choose one of the four capital budgeting projects listed below:
Table 1
t 
A 
B 
C 
D 
0 
(14,850,000) 
(17,500,000) 
(16,600,000) 
(17,900,000) 
1 
4,500,000 
4,500,000 
5,660,000 
4,680,000 
2 
4,500,000 
5,560,000 
5,660,000 
6,780,000 
3 
5,200,000 
5,820,000 
5,200,000 
5,900,000 
4 
6,800,000 
6,500,000 
4,600,000 
5,800,000 
Risk 
High 
Average 
Average 
Low 
Table 1 shows the expected aftertax operating cash flows for each project. All projects are expected to have a 4year life. The projects differ in size (the cost of the initial investment), and their cash flow patterns are different. They also differ in risk as indicated in the above table.
The capital budget is $20 million, and the projects are mutually exclusive.
Capital Structures
Whatcom Co. has the following capital structure, which is considered to be optimal:
Common Equity 
60% 
Preferred Equity 
10% 
Debt 
30% 
100% 
Cost of Capital
Hailey knows that in order to evaluate the projects she will have to determine the cost of capital for each of them. She has been given the following data, which he believes will be relevant to her task.
(2) Whatcom Co. has issued a 12% semiannual coupon bond with 15 years term to maturity. The current trading price is $1105.
(3) The firm has issued some preferred stock which pays an annual 10.5% dividend of $100 par value, and the current market price is $102.
(4) The firm’s stock is currently selling for $54 per share. Its last dividend (D_{0}) was $2.8, and dividends are expected to grow at a constant rate of 7%. The current riskfree return offered by Treasury security is 2.5%, and the market portfolio’s return is 10.4%. Whatcom Co. has a beta of 1.3
(5) The firm adjusts its project WACC for risk by adding 2% to the overall WACC for highrisk projects and subtracting 2.1% for lowrisk projects.
Hailey knows that Whatcom Co. executives have favored IRR in the past for making their capital budgeting decisions. Her professor at Seattle U. said NPV was better than IRR. She is the new kid on the block and must be prepared to defend her recommendations.
First, however, Hailey must finish the analysis and write her report. To help begin, she has formulated the following questions:
1. What is the firm’s cost of debt?
2. What is the firm’s cost of preferred stock?
3. Cost of common equity
(1) What is the estimated cost of common equity using the CAPM approach?
(2) What is the estimated cost of common equity using the DCF approach?
(3) What is the final estimate for cost of equity?
4. What is Whatcom Co.’s overall WACC?
5. Do you think the firm should use the single overall WACC as the hurdle rate for each of its projects? Explain.
6. What is the WACC for each project?
7. Calculate all relevant capital budgeting measures for each project and place your numerical solutions in Table 2.
Table 2
A 
B 
C 
D 

NPV 

IRR 
8. Comment on the commonly used capital budgeting measures. What is the underlying cause of ranking conflicts? Which criterion is the best one, and why?
9. Which of the projects are unacceptable and why?
10. Rank the projects that are acceptable, according to Hailey’s criterion of choice.
Q1) Using financial calculator to calculate the cost of debt
Inputs: N= 15 × 2 = 30
Pv= 1105
Pmt= 12%/ 2 × 1,000 = 60
Fv= 1,000
I/y= compute
We get, yield to maturity of the bond as 5.29% × 2 = 10.58%
Cost of debt = 10.58%
Q2) Cost of preference share = dividend / current share price
= 10.5% × 100 / 102
= 10.5 / 102
= 10.29%
Q3) 1) Using CAPM model
Cost of equity = Risk free rate + Beta (market return  risk free rate
= 2.5% + 1.3 (10.4%  2.5%)
= 2.5% + 1.3 ( 7.9%)
= 2.5% + 10.27%
= 12.77%
Q3) 2) Using DCF approach
Cost of equity = dividend (1+growth rate) / price + growth rate
= 2.8 (1+0.07) / 54 + 0.07
= 2.8 ( 1.07) / 54 + 0.07
= 2.9960 / 54 + 0.07
= 0.0555 + 0.07
= 12.55%
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