Question

# 5. Correcting for negative externalities - Regulation versus tradable permits Suppose the government wants to reduce...

5. Correcting for negative externalities - Regulation versus tradable permits

Suppose the government wants to reduce the total pollution emitted by three local firms. Currently, each firm is creating 4 units of pollution in the area, for a total of 12 pollution units. If the government wants to reduce total pollution in the area to 6 units, it can choose between the following two methods:

 Available Methods to Reduce Pollution 1. The government sets pollution standards using regulation. 2. The government allocates tradable pollution permits.

Each firm faces different costs, so reducing pollution is more difficult for some firms than others. The following table shows the cost each firm faces to eliminate each unit of pollution. For each firm, assume that the cost of reducing pollution to zero (that is, eliminating all 4 units of pollution) is prohibitively expensive.

Firm

Cost of Eliminating the...

First Unit of Pollution

Second Unit of Pollution

Third Unit of Pollution

(Dollars)

(Dollars)

(Dollars)

Firm X 90 125 180
Firm Y 55 70 110
Firm Z 650 800 1,500

Now, imagine that two government employees proposed alternative plans for reducing pollution by 6 units.

Method 1: Regulation

The first government employee suggests limiting pollution through regulation. To meet the pollution goal, the government requires each firm to reduce its pollution by 2 units.

Complete the following table with the total cost to each firm of reducing its pollution by 2 units.

Firm

Total Cost of Eliminating Two Units of Pollution

(Dollars)

Firm X
Firm Y
Firm Z

Meanwhile, the other employee proposes using a different strategy to achieve the government's goal of reducing pollution in the area from 12 units to 6 units. This employee suggests that the government issue two pollution permits to each firm. For each permit a firm has in its possession, it can emit 1 unit of pollution. Firms are free to trade pollution permits with one another (that is, buy and sell them) as long as both firms can agree on a price. For example, if firm X agrees to sell a permit to firm Y at an agreed-upon price, then firm Y would end up with three permits and would need to reduce its pollution by only 1 unit while firm X would end up with only one permit and would have to reduce its pollution by 3 units. Assume the negotiation and exchange of permits are costless.

Because firm Z has high pollution-reduction costs, it thinks it might be better off buying a permit from firm Y and a permit from firm X so that it doesn't have to reduce its own pollution emissions. At which of the following prices is firm Y willing to sell one of its permits to firm Z, but firm X is not? Check all that apply.

\$99

\$160

\$163

\$692

\$707

Suppose the the government has set the trading price of a permit at \$630 per permit.

Complete the following table with the action each firm will take at this permit price, the amount of pollution each firm will eliminate, and the amount it costs each firm to reduce pollution to the necessary level. If a firm is willing to buy two permits, assume that it buys one permit from each of the other firms. (Hint: Do not include the prices paid for permits in the cost of reducing pollution.)

Firm

Initial Pollution Permit Allocation

Action

Final Amount of Pollution Eliminated

Cost of Pollution Reduction

(Units of pollution)

(Units of pollution)

(Dollars)

Firm X 2
Firm Y 2
Firm Z 2

Determine the total cost of eliminating six units of pollution using both methods, and enter the amounts in the following table. (Hint: You might need to get information from previous tasks to complete this table.)

Proposed Method

Total Cost of Eliminating Six Units of Pollution

(Dollars)

Regulation

In this case, you can conclude that eliminating pollution is   costly to society when the government regulates each firm to eliminate a certain amount of pollution than when it allocates pollution permits that can be bought and sold. B) x and y will ready to sell one permit if it gets price for permit equal to or higher than cost of third unit pollution cost elimination.

So X want price for permit is equal to or higher than 180.

And y wants price for permit is equal to or higher than 110.

So permit price 160 and 163 will result in y selling the permit and x not selling the permit.

C) D) Method 1: regulation

Total cost of pollution elimination=215+125+1450=1790

Total cost of pollution elimination=395+235=630

So elimination pollution by tradable permit method is less costly than regulation ,so tradable permit is efficent than regulation.